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Full text of "Rules of discipline and advices of the Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends held in Philadelphia"

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Gift of 

Frankford Monthly 








Religious Society of Friends 


(Fifteenth and Race Streets.) 


Printed by direction of the Yearly Meeting. 

i 9 i 8. 






Overseers, - 


Appeals. - 


Parents and Children, - 


Arbitration, - 


Particular Advices, 


Books, - 


Plainness, - 


Burials, - 


Prayer, - 


Civil Government, 


Procedure ln Meetings 

Conduct axd Conver- 

for Discipline, - 


sation, - 


Queries, ... 


Days and Times, - 


Queries for Meetings 

Disovynmext, - 


of Ministry and 

Family Visits, 


Counsel - 


Gaming and Diversions, 


Records, - 


Intoxicants and Nar- 

Representative Com- 

cotics, - 


mittee, - 






Marriage, - 


Schools, - 


Meeting Funds, - 


Secret Societies, - 


Meetings for Discipline. 

1 2 

The Script ures, - 


Meetings for Worship, 


Trade, - 


Membership. - 


Trusts .and Titles to 

Members in Xeed, 


Property, - 


Memorials. - 


War, ... - 




Wills. - 


Mlxlstry and Counsel, 


Yearly Meeting, - 


Oaths, - - - 

4- 7 

VSee Index at close of book. 






It is held by the Religious Society of Friends 
that God endows every human being with a 
measure of His own Divine Spirit, by which he has 
revealed Himself to His children in all generations ; 
that this Spirit, which although in man, is not of 
man, is the manifestation in our human nature of 
the Eternal Word " which was in the beginning," 
and which was manifested without measure in the 
person of our Divine Master, Jesus Christ ; and 
that as we submit ourselves to the leadings of this 
Light of Christ in the soul, we are loosed from the 
bonds of self and sin, and enabled to live in con- 
formity with the will of our Heavenly Father. 

The Society early recognized that there were 
among its members different degrees of spiritual 
growth and religious experience, and that those 
whose lives had long been dedicated to the obedi- 
ent service of the Lord might nurture the growth of 
those younger in His service. In their engage- 
ment to meet together for the worship of God in 
spirit according to the direction of the Holy Law- 
giver, they were also exercised to have a tender 
care over each other, that all might be preserved in 
unity of faith and practice. 

To this end, therefore, and as an exterior hedge 
of preservation against the many temptations and 
dangers to which our situation in the world 
exposes us, advices have been issued and rules 
adopted from time to time by the Society. 

They found their inception in the impressions 
made upon concerned minds, and having been sub- 
mitted individually or through subordinate meet- 
ings to the judgment of the Yearly Meeting, they 
were adopted and issued by that body. 

Collections of these Rules and Advices, in manu- 
script, were formed by the Yearly Meeting as early 
as 1704, again in 17 19, and at different times later, 
notably in 1 762; and in 1797 the compilation was 
issued in print. The book was added to and 
changed at various times. In 1892 it was concluded 
to revise the whole, and the revision having been 
adopted by the Yearly Meeting in 1894, it, with 
alterations made in 1910, 191 3 and 191 8, now 
forms our Book of Discipline. t 

[Note.— In the following pages, pronouns of the masculine 
gender include the feminine, and the singular number includes 
the plural in all consistent cases. 

The term Quarterly Meeting includes Half-Year Meetings in 
consistent cases.] 


Oi'R first Yearly Meeting was held at Bur- History oi 
lington, in New Jersey, the thirty-first day 
of the Sixth month, 16S1, O. S., for the 
provinces of Pennsylvania and New Jersey ; 
in 1685 it was agreed that it should be held 
alternately at Burlington and Philadelphia ; 
in 1755 the time of holding it was changed 
to the Ninth month ; in 1760 it was concluded 
that it should be held at the same time at 
Philadelphia only ; in 1798 the time of hold- 
ing it was altered to the third Second-day in 
the Fourth month; in 1S27 the time of Time of 
holding it was changed to the second Second- °' ing 
day of the Fourth month ; and in 1838 it was 
agreed that it should be held the Second- 
day following the second First-day in the Fifth 
month, as it now is. 

The Yearly Meeting of Ministry and Ministry and 
Counsel is held on the Seventh-day of the * 111561 
week preceding. 


From the rise of our Religious Society, 
meetings for worship have been held. As 
the attendance of them is an expression of 
our allegiance to our Heavenly Father, and 
a means afforded for the renewal of our 
spiritual strength, we exhort all to a Chris- 
tian zeal and exercise in the performance of 
this reasonable service. 
Reverent As we are not capable of performing Divine 

waitln s worship in our own strength, we recommend 

recommended. . . ° 

a reverent waiting upon God in true silence, 
and retirement of mind, for a renewed sense 
of the inward power of his Spirit, whereby 
we are qualified to worship Him in an ac- 
ceptable manner. Let our faithfulness and 
sincerity herein appear by the humility, 
meekness, and circumspection of our lives 
and conversation, exemplifying the princi- 
ples of Truth as they were declared by Jesus 

Children and i i • i* • i 1 i i • 

youth to be anc * his disciples ; and we earnestly advise 

encouraged to that the children and youth of our Society 

be trained in a knowledge of this important 



duty, and encouraged to assemble regularly 
at the times appointed, for religious worship. 
It is recommended that Friends early „ 

* Care to those 

extend care, in the spirit of restoring love, to who neglect. 
members who neglect the attendance of our 

We would revive an exhortation of our 
Yearly Meeting held in 1694: 

" Dear Friends, keep your meetings in 
the authority, wisdom, and power of Truth, To be held in 

, . /111 i r- • • 1 1 tne authority 

and unity of the blessed Spirit, and endeavor of Truth 
to keep out of all contention, personal re- 
flection, heat and passions. Let all be done 
in meekness, and the God of peace be with 


For the regular and effectual support of 
good order in the Society, besides the usual 
meetings for the purpose of Divine worship, 
there have been instituted meetings for Dis- 
cipline, which having from experience been 
found very beneficial, it is earnestly recom- 
mended that they be maintained in that au- 
thority wherein they were established. 
Where there is negligence concerning them, 
serious spiritual loss is the result. 

These meetings, and their subordination 

subordination. ° 

to one another, are as follows : First, Pre- 
parative Meetings ; which consist of the 
members of a particular meeting for worship, 
and are accountable to the Monthly Meet- 
ings : Second, Monthly Meetings ; each of 
which may consist of one or more Prepara- 
tive Meetings, and is accountable to the 
Quarterly Meeting: Third, Quarterly and 
Half- Year Meetings ; each of which consists 
of one or more Monthly Meetings, and is ac- 
countable to the Yearly Meeting: and Fourth^ 


Order and 


the Yearly Meeting ; which comprises the 

Any of these meetings may be held by ^ or 

men and women in separate session, or together. 

The holding of a Preparative Meeting is ^epaiative 

. . , , . -, , . -i Meetir.r 7 . 

not enjoined where its membership a.nd whenn ~ t en _ 
that of the Monthly Meeting is the same, joined. 
In such cases business that would otherwise 
come before a Preparative Meeting shall be 
attended to by the Monthly Meeting. 

A Quarterly Meeting shall not be set up, Order in 
laid down, nor omitted, without the consent settmgup 

and laving 

of the Yearly Meeting; a Monthly Meet- down.' 
ing without the consent of the Quarterly 
Meeting ; nor any Preparative or other es- 
tablished meeting for business or worship, 
until application to the Monthly Meeting has 
been made ; and when there approved, the 
consent of the Quarterly Meeting shall also 
be obtained. 

Xo meeting for worship, intended to con- Establishment 
sist of Friends belonging to two or more ofmeetm§s 

00 for worship. 

monthly meetings, shall be set up, until the 
proposal shall have been offered to, and ap- 
proved by, those monthly meetings, and the 
consent of their respective Quarterly Meeting 
or meetings been obtained. When the meeting 


proposed is opened, it shall be attended by 
a few suitable Friends, deputed by each of 
the said Monthly Meetings. If at any time 
it is thought expedient that a Preparative 
Meeting should be held at the same place, 
the consent of the said Monthly and Quar- 
terly Meetings shall, in like manner, be 
applied for and obtained ; and the said Pre- 
parative Meeting shall be annexed to one 
or the other of those Monthly Meetings, 
as may be most likely to conduce to the 
benefit of the individuals who compose it, and 
to the advantage of the Society. 
Advice These meetings have distinct allotments 

attendance. °f service. Experience has shown that when 
they are attended in dedication of heart, 
with a sincere desire for help and edification, 
they are often seasons of Divine favor. 
Friends are affectionately desired and ex- 
horted to be diligent in the attendance of 
them, and, when met, humbly to seek to be 
clothed with the spirit of wisdom and charity. 
This will divest the mind of a dependence on 
our own strength and abilities, endue us with 
patience and condescension toward one 
another, and enable us to realize the truth of 
the declaration of Jesus : " One is your 
teacher, and all ye are brethren." 1 

1 Matthew 23 : 8. 


Thus in our several stations and move- 
ments, we shall witness a qualification to 
strengthen one another in that faith which 
works by love to the purifying of the heart. 




In order that the Yearly Meeting may be Manner of 

i i -, • appointment. 

properly represented when not in session, 
it is directed that each Quarterly Meeting 
produce annually, in its report to the Yearly 
Meeting, the names of four suitable Friends, 
to constitute together a Representative Com- 
mittee to be held and regulated according to" 
the following rules : 

First. Due notice of its meetings shall be regulating 
given to the members. 

Second. No fewer than twelve members 
shall constitute a meeting capable of trans- 
acting business. 


Third. The said Committee may sit on 
its own adjournments, and order these, as 
well as the times of its stated meetings, ac 
cording to the business before it. 

Fourth. The said Committee shall keep fair 
minutes of all its proceedings, and annually 
lay them before the Yearly Meeting. 

Services The services confided to this Committee 

confided to are, in general: 

First. To represent the Yearly Meeting dur* 
ing its recess, and to act on its behalf in cases 
where the welfare of our religious Society 
may render it needful. It is not to interfere 
with any matter of faith or discipline. 

Second. To procure and distribute such 
books or pamphlets as may be a means of 
spreading the knowledge of our religious 
principles or testimonies ; and to advise or 
assist any of our members, on their own ap- 
plication, who may incline to publish any 
such manuscript or work as may tend to pro- 
mote the cause of Truth, or be beneficial tc 
the Society. 

Third. To render advice and assistance to 
meetings, at their request, on subjects relat- 
ing to property, titles to lands, the renewal 


of trusts, and the application of public gifts oervices 

. rr r & confided to 

and legacies. 

Fourth, To receive from the several 
Quarterly Meetings their accounts of suffer- 
ings, and also such memorials concerning 
deceased Friends as those meetings have 
concurred with ; that, when examined and 
approved, they may be laid before the Yearly 
Meeting, or otherwise be returned to the 
respective Quarterly Meetings for revision 
or correction. 

Fifth. To extend such advice and assist- 
ance to any individuals under suffering for 
our testimonies, as their cases may require ; 
and, if necessary, to apply to the govern- 
ment, or to persons in authority, on their 

Sixth. To correspond with representative 
bodies of other Yearly Meetings, as occa- 
sion may require, on subjects of general in- 
terest to the Society. 

Although none are members of the Rep- 
resentative Committee but such as are ap- Attendance 
pointed in the manner herein provided, yet ofother 
other Friends, at the discretion of said Com- 


mittee, may be permitted to attend when 
they feel a concern to do so. 
Supplying When a vacancy occurs by death or other- 

wise among the members of the Representa- 
tive Committee appointed by a Quarterly 
Meeting, such Meeting should take care to 
supply it by a new appointment. 



Historical Introduction 

Friends were gathered from the estab- 
lished churches and a formal service, to own 
a living, baptizing gospel ministry free to 
all agreeably to the apostolic injunction: 
"Be sober unto prayer: . . . according 
as each hath received a gift, ministering it 
among yourselves, as good stewards of the 
manifold grace of God; if any man speak- 
eth, speaking as it were oracles of God; if 


any man ministereth, ministering as of the 
strength which God supplieth." 1 So the min- 
isters were led frequently to meet together 
to encourage and strengthen each other in a 
knowledge of the duties they owed to God 
and man, that they might more fully and 
faithfully minister the Word of life. As 
these meetings were found to be beneficial, 
a concern arose for Monthly Meetings to ap- 
point some judicious, concerned Friends to 
have care for the conducting of our religious 
meetings, and to be companions and coun- 
selors to the ministers, as tender, loving, 
spiritual fathers and mothers, especially to 
those young in the ministry, inciting to a 
frequent reading of the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments, and to a de- 
pendence on Divine aid for the right un- 
derstanding of them; encouraging all to 
abide in a simple and patient submission to 
the will of God, and to keep to the open- 
ings of Divine love and life in themselves, 
that they may experience a growth in their 
gifts, and be preserved from withholding 
more than is meet, or extending their com- 
munications beyond the life and power of 

x w i Peter 4: 7, 10, 11. 




Appoint- It is directed that once in four years, or 

oftener, if advisable, a general nominating 
committee of the Monthly Meeting, or a 
special committee appointed for the pur- 
pose, shall propose four or more Friends, 
selected according to their qualifications, 
without regard to age, to compose a Pre- 
parative Meeting of Ministry and Counsel. 
Care should be taken that those selected 
for this service shall include such as have 
spoken acceptably in meetings for wor- 
ship, and other spiritually-minded, dis- 
creet Friends. These, with the persons 
chosen by other Monthly Meetings, shall 
compose the Quarterly (or Half- Yearly) 
Meeting, and the members of all these 
shall compose the Yearly Meeting, of Min- 
istry and Counsel. Whether any change 
is proposed or not, the nominating Com- 
mittee shall report all the names to the 
Monthly Meeting for its judgment, and 
those appointed shall serve until another 
general appointment is made or they are 
otherwise released. 

Information of all such appointments 
shall be transmitted in writing to the Pre- 


parative and Quarterly (or Half- Yearly) 
Meetings of Ministry and Counsel. 

Sessions of the Preparative and other Times of 
Meetings of Ministry and Counsel shall be regular 
held before each Quarterly Meeting, at 
such times as they shall respectively 
arrange, unless the General Meetings to 
which they pertain shall direct otherwise. 

The Preparative Meetings of Ministry Representa- 
and Counsel shall appoint suitable num- tlves to be 
bers of representatives to the Quarterly appoin ec 
or Half- Yearly Meetings of Ministry and 
Counsel, and those Meetings shall ap- 
point representatives to the Yearly Meet- 
ing of Ministry and Counsel. 

Friends who are not members of Meet- Privilege of 
ings of Ministry and Counsel, but who are attendance 
traveling with minutes from their Month- 
ly Meetings, shall have the privilege of 
sitting in such Meetings. Meetings of 
Ministry and Counsel may, as it shall seem 
proper, allow or invite others to sit with 

Members of Meetings of Ministry and Care over 
Counsel are affectionately desired to exer- membershi P 
cise a watchful care over the membership 
for its preservation in the way of right- 
eousness, always approving themselves by 


good example in conversation and con- 
duct to be such as endeavor faithfully to 
maintain the testimonies of Truth. 
Queries to be At each Preparative Meeting of Min- 
considered istry and Counsel, after a time of solemn 
retirement, the queries addressed to such 
Meetings are to be read and carefully con- 
Report to be A report on the condition of the Meet- 
forwarded j n g^ or answers to the queries if preferred, 
signed by the clerk, shall be forwarded 
with the names of the representatives to 
the ensuing Quarterly (or Half- Yearly) 
Meeting of Ministry and Counsel. 
Procedure in In the Quarterly and Half- Yearly 
Quarterly Meetings of Mnistry and Counsel, the 

Half- Yearly ° J 7 

and Yearly queries are also to be read, with the re- 
Meetings ports from the several Preparative Meet- 
ings, and the state of the members care- 
fully considered, that where occasion re- 
quires, advice and counsel may be ex- 
tended. At the Meeting next preceding 
the Yearly Meeting, a general report, 
signed by the clerk, containing the sub- 
stance of reports received, is to be for- 
warded, with the names of the representa- 
tives, to- the Yearly Meeting of Ministry 
and Counsel. In this Meeting, the queries, 


together with the reports from Quarterly 
and Half- Yearly Meetings, shall be read 
and considered. Other action may be 
taken as shall be deemed advisable. 

None of the said meetings of Ministry Not to 
and Counsel are in anywise to interfere mte * er f 

. . . Wltn other 

with the business of any meeting for disci- Meetings 
pline; nor is the Yearly Meeting of Minis- 
try and Counsel to allow its adjournments 
to interfere with the sittings of the Yearly 
Meeting for Discipline. 


When a member of the Meeting of Min- visits and 
istry and Counsel believes it right to make Appointed 

,. . . . , •■*#•■ 1 Meetings 

a religious visit and appoint Meetings be- beyond 
yond the limits of the Quarterly or Half- Quarterly 
Yearly Meeting to which he belongs, the ^f f " 
concern is to be opened in the Month- 
ly Meeting for consideration and judg- 
ment, and if approved a suitable minute 
expressive thereof signed by the clerk 
should be given. _ 

rr 1 • 1 Ar 1 Toother 

If the concern is to attend a Yearly, Yearly 
Quarterly or Half- Yearly Meeting, and Meetings 
such Meetings as may lie in the way going 
and returning, a certificate of the Monthly 
Meeting, signed by the clerk, will be 
sufficient. If the concern is to visit and 
appoint meetings beyond the limits of 



Aid to be 

Visits be- 
yond the 
Sea, etc 

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, and the ap- 
probation of the Monthly Meeting be ob- 
tained, the concern should also be brought 
before the Quarterly or Half- Yearly Meet- 
ing for its consideration, and, if united 
with, its endorsement. 

When a Friend is set at liberty to make 
a religious visit within the limits of the 
Yearly Meeting, the Monthly Meeting of 
which he is a member should extend care 
that the service be not hindered, or the 
Friend oppressed for means to meet the 
necessary expenses thereof; and when the 
concern is united with, and a minute en- 
dorsed by the Quarterly Meeting, a like 
care should rest with it. 

If the concern is to go beyond the sea, 
or on a very extended religious visit on this 
continent, after the approval and certi- 
ficates of the Monthly and Quarterly or 
Half- Yearly Meetings have been obtained, 
the Friend so concerned should lay his 
prospects before the Yearly Meeting or 
its Representative Committee for consid- 
eration. If the concern be approved the 
certificate should be endorsed by the clerks 
or clerk. . The Friend is then at liberty to 
proceed, and a committee should be ap- 


pointed by the Yearly Meeting or by its 
Representative Committee to take further 
care, and if necessary to draw from its funds 
to enable him to perform the service for 
which he is liberated. 

When a Friend has been liberated to Certificate 
make a religious visit, and the service has t0 ** J* 

. . turned 

been accomplished, the Meetings that ap- 
proved thereof should be so informed and 
the certificate returned without unneces- 
sary delay to the meeting which issued it. 

As the occasion of our religious meet- Guard 
ines is solemn, care should be maintained *z* mst 

. . disorder 

to guard against anything that tends to 
disorder or confusion therein. If any feel 
aught against what is publicly delivered, 
let him speak to the person privately and 

Public commendation or disapproval of PubHc 

. . . . ^ cornmenda- 

those who speak in our meetings for wor- tion to be 
ship should be avoided. avoided 


Direction The following advice should be read at 
for reading p reparative Meetings of Ministry and 

Counsel at their sessions next preceding 
Yearly Meeting, and oftener if desired. 

It is earnestly and affectionately recom- 
mended that we watch over one another 
for good, helping those among us who are 
rightly exercised in the ministry; discour- 
aging such as run into words without life 
and power; advising against affectation of 
tone and gesture, and everything that 
would hurt their service; yet encouraging 

.. . the humble, careful traveller. May we all 
dwell in that spirit which gives ability to 

, .labor successfully in the church of Christ; 
so shall we show forth the fruits of the 
doctrine which we deliver to others, be- 
ing examples to our brethren in word, in 
conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, 
and in purity. 
Queries The following Queries are to be read 
and considered as heretofore directed: 


First Query. Are you careful to attend 
Meetings for Divine worship and for dis- 
cipline, in a spirit of consecration, encour- 
aging your families and others to this im- 
portant duty? 

Second Query. Does the vocal ministry 
in your Meeting tend to increase the u fruit 
of the spirit * * * love, joy, peace, long- 
suffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 
meekness, self-control" ? l Do those of whom 
vocal service is required seek Divine guid- 
ance? Are they careful and diligent in 
using the ability which God has given? 

Third Query. Do you strive to make 
your lives and conversation clean, tem- 
perate and upright? In your labors for the 
truth, are you in harmony with one an- 
other and with the Meeting to which you 
belong? Do you endeavor to be good ex- 
amples to the community in private life, 
family influence and public service? 

1 Gal. 5: 22, 23. 


To be It is directed that in every Monthly Meet- 

appointed, ing a proper number of faithful and judicious 
men and women be appointed to the station 
of overseers. Where a Monthly Meeting 
consists of two or more Preparative Meetings 
each of them should be represented. 
Duties of. It is the duty of the overseers to exercise 
a vigilant and tender care over their fellow 
members ; and if anything repugnant to the 
harmony and good order of the Society ap- 
pears among them, it should be seasonably 
attended to. To prevent the introduction 
of all unnecessary and premature com- 
plaints to meetings for discipline, it is ad- 
vised that if any member shall have cause 
bTb^ht:^ *" com pl amt against another, it be men- 
overseers, tioned to the overseers, who are to see 
that the person complained of has been 
treated with according to Gospel order, 1 
previous to the case being reported to the 
Preparative or Monthly Meeting. It is earn- 
estly desi-red that in dealing with any, over- 

1 Matthew 18 : 15. 


seers do it in the spirit of meekness and love, Duties of, 
patiently endeavoring to instruct and advise continued - 
them ; informing the Preparative Meeting 
when the labor proves ineffectual, or where 
the nature of the case requires it, that, if need- 
ful, the case may be laid before the Monthly 
Meeting, notice of which should be given to 
the party when it can conveniently be done. 

It is recommended to Monthly Meetings, chancres to b# 
that a committee be appointed once in considered. 
three years, or as much oftener as the case 
may require, to consider the propriety of 
changing the overseers, and bringing forward 
in the improvement of their gifts, other 
Friends on whom a concern for the welfare 
of the Society rests. 

It is further advised that the overseers of 
a Monthly Meeting meet frequently to- To meet 
gether, at least once in three months, to requent>i 
consider carefully the welfare of the flock, 
and to strengthen, encourage and aid each 
other in the faithful performance of their 
responsible duties. 

And we tenderly exhort all our members „ . . . 

J txnortatiOQ 

who may be rightly called into this or any to those 
other service of the church, not hastily to ex~ cailedint0 
cuse themselves therefrom, but solidly to 
ponder the weighty advice of the apostle : 


"Tend the flock of God which is among yc> 
exercising the oversight, not of constraint, 
but willingly, according unto God ; nor yet 
for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind ; neither 
as lording it over the charge allotted to you, 
but making yourselves ensamples to the 
flock. And when the chief Shepherd shall 
be manifested, ye shall receive the crown of 
glory that fadeth not away." * 

«. , . , Children whose parents are both members 

Birthright . r 

members. of our Religious Society are, by birthright, 

members also, and are to be recorded as such ; 

Children with when one parent only is a member, minor 

one parent a 

member. children may be recorded as members at tn^ 
Record of discretion of the Monthly Meeting, if both 


whose parents parents have expressed concurrence. It is 
of different directed that children of parents belonging 
Mee^ngs. to different Monthly Meetings of Friends 

II. Peter 5: 2, 3, 4. 

MEilBERSHlP. 31 

shall be considered members of the Monthly 
Meeting of which the father is a member; 
and the record of their birth shall be made 
in that Monthly Meeting. 

It is directed that the following order be Order in 
observed respecting persons who desire ad- application 

. . n , . . for member- 

miSSlOn into membership ; that application ghip< 

be made to the overseers, who, when they 
are satisfied, are to lay it before men's or 
women's Preparative Meeting, as the case 
may be, when they are not held together ; 
and when there approved, the case should 
be laid before the Monthly Meeting, which 
meeting shall appoint some suitable Friends 
to inquire into the person's life and conver- 
sation, and also to take an opportunity for a 
serious conference with him in order the 
better to understand whether the motives for 
such request be sincere, and report their 
sense of the person's fitness to become a 
member ; and when the meeting is satisfied, a 
minute should be made signifying the accep- 
tance of such into membership, and appointing 
one or more Friends to acquaint the person 
thereof, and invite his attendance at our 
meetings for discipline. 


of applica- 
tions for 

respect to 
nation or 

attention to 
oon -members. 

It is earnestly recommended that on every 
application of persons to be received into 
membership, Monthly Meetings be deep and 
weighty in their deliberations and in reach* 
ing a conclusion, the neglect of such caution 
having often been injurious both to the in 
dividual and to the Society ; but, when 
united in believing that the applicants are 
convinced of the truth of our religious prin- 
ciples and in a good degree subject to the 
Divine Witness in their own hearts, man- 
ifested by a circumspect life and conduct, 
said meetings are at liberty to receive such 
into membership, without respect to nation 
or color. 

As there are those not in membership 
with any religious organization who frequent- 
ly attend our meetings for worship, who are 
serious and thoughtful in their deportment 
and who manifest an interest in our princi- 
ples and testimonies, who might with profit 
to themselves and the meeting become 
members of our Religious Society, it is rec- 
ommended that overseers and other con- 
cerned Friends give loving attention to such, 
with a view to their becoming members. 


As the visiting of Friends in their families, Such concerns 
in the openings of Heavenly Wisdom, is a ^ ^ sh d 
service which hath often been blessed to the 
minds of the visitors and visited, it is advised 
that concerns of this nature be tenderly cher- 
ished, and those who are rightly exercised 
therein encouraged to move forward in due 
season and in humble dependence on the 
Shepherd of Israel, who not only puts His 
own forth, but goes before and enriches all 
who are faithful to His appointments with 
the reward of sweet comfort and solid 
peace. When a Friend has a religious con- 
cern to visit the families belonging to any 
particular meeting or meetings, it should be 
opened in his Monthly Meeting for concur- Approval of 
rence and approval, when, if the concern is monthly 
united with and the Friend set at liberty to meetin § s 

J g required. 

perform the same, the matter should be laid 
before the meeting, the members of which it 
is proposed to visit, and if there approved, 
way should be opened for the accomplish- 
ment of the visits. 



Service "There are diversities of gifts, but the 
same spirit.'' 1 The ability to share in min- 
istry of service is the privilege of each of 
our members. We employ no paid pastors; 
and in order that the needs of our members 
for Christian fellowship be met, it becomes 
the duty of many members, either individ- 
ually or under committee appointment, to ex- 
tend what is generally known as pastoral care. 
Vocal One of the earliest testimonies developed 

Ministry j n t j ie re ligi us experience of Friends was 
that in favor of a ministry of the gospel 
resting upon a Divine call to public service. 
We continue to cherish a vocal ministry de- 
pending upon the teaching and influence of 
the Holy Spirit. We realize, however, the 
value of a proper training of natural abili- 
ties, and recognize that our members may 
profit by study and instruction. Each 
may thus be better qualified to express a 
message when he feels called upon to do so. 
By the revelation of God to man we are 
called to be subject to His will, servants of 
Christ, and our brothers' keepers; therefore, 

1 1 Cor. 12 :4ff. 


we should be ever watchful for His calling 
upon us to exercise one or more of the di- 
verse gifts which He has bestowed upon 
man. In vocal ministry, we set no one apart, 
either by training or support, to make a pro- 
fession of this sacred gift; but we counsel 
and encourage those who have received it 
to consecrated dependence upon the revela- 
tion which God gives. 

In love and tenderness, we desire that 
members of our Society shall realize the al- 
legiance they owe to it, and that by indiffer- 
ence to its testimonies, and absence from its 
meetings, they deprive it of strength which 
is its due. 


Prayer is the aspiration of the soul. It 
is man's communion with God. Friends 
have always recognized it as essential to re- 
ligious life. The result of prayer becomes 
apparent in the nobler lives of those who are 
constant in its exercise. We, individually, 
should cultivate the habit of turning to God 
at all times, and of seeking Divine guidance 
in all things that we may, in truth, be led 
by the spirit of God. Vocal prayer, when 
prompted by a deep concern and a sense of 


human need, is a vital part of public wor- 
ship and often helps those assembled to come 
under the influence of Christ. 


Friends have ever had a testimony against 
Ground of formal worship, being convinced by the pre- 

our testimony. _r ° J r 

cepts of our Lord Jesus Christ, by the testi- 
monies of his Apostles, and by individual 
experience, that the worship and prayers 
which God accepts are such only as are 
produced by the influence and assistance 
of his Holy Spirit. We cannot therefore 
consistently unite with any in the observance 
of public fasts, feasts, and what they term 
holy days ; or such injunctions and forms as 
are devised in man's will for Divine worship. 
The dispensation to which outward observ- 
ances were peculiar having long since given 
place to the spiritual dispensation of the 
gospel, we believe the fast to which we are 
now called is not the bowing of the head 
like a bulrush for a day, but an universal 


and continual fasting- and refraining from 
everything which has a tendency to defile the 
soul, and unfit it for becoming the temple of 
the Holy Spirit ; according to the injunctions 
of Christ to his primitive disciples : "If any 
man would come after me, let him deny him- 
self, and take up his cross daily, and follow 
me:" 1 "Watch ye at every season, making 
supplication, that ye may prevail to escape 
all these things that shall come to pass, and 
to stand before the Son of man." 2 That 
the primitive believers saw an end to these 
shadows of good things, by coming to Him 
in whom all figures and shadows end, is 
evident by the words of the apostle Paul : 
" For Christ is the end of the law unto 
righteousness to every one that believeth." 3 
"But now hath he obtained a ministry the 
more excellent, by so much also as he is also 
the mediator of a better covenant, which hath 
been enacted upon better promises." 4 " Let 
no man therefore judge you in meat, or 
in drink, or in respect of a feast day or 
a new moon or a sabbath day : which 
are a shadow of the things to come ; but 
♦he body is Christ's." 5 And the same 

Luke 9 : 23. "Luke 21 : 36. 3 Romans 10 : 4 

* Hebrews 8 : 6. 3 Colossians 2 : 16, 17. 


apostle thus expostulated with some who 
had fallen from the true faith in these re- 
spects : " But now that ye have come to 
know God . . . how turn ye back again to 
the weak and beggarly rudiments, whereun- 
to ye desire to be in bondage over again ? 
Ye observe days, and months, and seasons, 
and years. I am afraid of you, lest by any 
means I have bestowed labour upon you in 


The Spirit of Truth which led our early 

Plainness and . .... . . . 

simplicity rnends to lay aside things unbecoming the 
encouraged. Gospel of Christ still leads in the same path 
all who submit to its guidance ; we therefore 
earnestly encourage all Friends to watch 
over themselves in this respect, and seriously 
to consider the plainness and simplicity 
which the Gospel enjoins, manifesting it in 
their conversation, apparel, furniture, build- 
ings, salutation, and manner of living, exer- 

1 Galatians4: 9, 10, II, 


rising plainness of speech without respect of 
persons in all their converse among men, not 
balking their testimony by varying their 
language according to their company. 

We tenderly advise that Friends avoid im- immodera- 
moderation in the use of lawful things, which tion m lawful 

^ things to be 

though innocent in themselves may thereby avoided, 
become hurtful ; and that they endeavor to 
maintain a consistent bearino- as members of 
the Religious Society of Friends in their busi- Consistent 
ness relations, as well as in even* other walk ceanngm 

J business 

in life, remembering that to uphold the relations, 
standard of simplicity as shown to them, our 
forefathers patiently suffered long imprison- 
ments and great persecutions ; being con- 
vinced that it was their duty thus to bear a 
testimony against the vain spirit of the world. 

The example of our blessed Saviour, his 
immediate followers, and virtuous and holy 
men in all ages, ought to make a due impres- 
sion on ever}' considerate mind, and espec- 
ially on such as have the advantage of a 
guarded education. 

We desire that our members may so real- Exhortation 
ize the saving power of the grace of God to sobriety of 
that they will be enabled to deny all worldly ~ e 
allurements, and to live soberly, righteously, 
and godly in this present world, that they may 

4T WAR. 

adorn the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ 
in all things ; so may they feel his blessing 
and be instrumental in his hand for the 
good of others. 


Faithful Friends are exhorted to adhere faithfully 

testimony to to our anc [ ent testimony against wars and 

bemaintained. . . 

fightings, and in no way to unite with any 
warlike measures, either offensive or defen- 
sive : that by the inoffensiveness of our con- 
duct we may convincingly demonstrate our- 
selves to be subjects of the Messiah's peace- 
ful reign, and be instrumental in the promo- 
tion thereof toward its desired completion 
when, according to ancient prophecy, " the 
earth shall be filled with the knowledge of 
the glory of Jehovah as the waters cover the 
sea," 1 and its inhabitants shall learn war no 

We fervently recommend to the deep at- 
tention of all our members that they be re- 

1 Habakkuk 2:14. 

WAR. 41 

ligiously guarded against approving of or caution 
participating in military operations, paying a s am5t aidm s 

1 • 1 r i r military 

taxes levied for the express purpose ol war, op€ratlon5- 
or assisting in conveying military stores : 
and that they labor to experience a settle- 
ment on the sure foundation of unchange- 
able truth, whereby through the prevalence of 
Christian love and good will to man we may 
demonstrate that the kingdom we seek is not 
of this world, but a kingdom and govern- 
ment whose subjects are free indeed, re- 
deemed from those captivating lusts whence 
come wars and fi^htinofs. 

A living concern for the advancement of 
the peaceable kingdom of Christ continuing- 

r & & Avoidance of 

with us, a fervent desire prevails that the trade or 
members of our Religious Society should bu5iness 

r 11 . 1 . . , promotive of 

carefully avoid engaging in any trade or busi- war 
ness promotive of war, or in any way shar- 
ing or participating in the spoils of war ; that 
through close attention to the monitions of 
Divine grace they may be preserved in a 
conduct consistent with our holy profession ; 
not at all doubting that He who is the source 
of all wisdom and power will continue t^ 
carry on His blessed cause of peace, ici 
the earth. 

4 2 






Friends are recommended to use their in- 
fluence in favor of arbitration as a means of 
settling differences between nations. 

We earnestly desire that capital punish- 
ment shall cease, and advise our members to 
bear a faithful testimony in this direction. 

to the 

of the 


Our members are exhorted faithfully to 
maintain our Christian testimony against the 
burden, administration, and imposition of 
oaths, according to the express command of 
Jesus: "I say unto you, Swear not at all ; 
neither by the heaven, for it is the throne of 
God ; nor by the earth, for it is the foot-stool 
of his feet ; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the 
city of the great King. Neither shalt thou 
swear by thy head, for thou canst not make 
one hair* white or black. But let your speech 
be, Yea, yea ; Nay, nay ; and whatsoever 

OATHS. 43 

is more than these is of evil." x And also 
according to the injunction of the apostle 
James : " But above all things, my breth- 
ren, swear not, neither by the heaven, nor 
by the earth, nor by any other oath : but let 
your yea be yea, and your nay, nay ; that ye 
fall not under judgment." 2 

Friends in all places are exhorted carefully Avoidance of 
to avoid electing or promoting their brethren stations 

. . .... tending to 

to such stations in civil government as may vio]ation of 
subject them to the temptation of violating testimony, 
this testimony ; and where any members 
show an inclination or desire to solicit or 
accept such offices, timely care should be 
taken to caution them against it. In the 
execution of instruments of writing re- Attesting 
quiring witnesses, it is recommended thatP a P ersb y 

t^ • i i , affirmation. 

rriends endeavor to procure such persons 
for this purpose as will attest the same by 

1 Matthew 5 : 34, 35, 36, 37. 2 James 5 : 



Advice We earnestly and lovingly advise our 

against use of. members to abstain from the use of all intox- 
icants, either as a drink or in the preparation 
of food, and to use their influence to induce 
others to do likewise ; to avoid frequenting 

Avoidance of . . i i • i i i i i 

places where places where such drinks are sold, and gath- 
soid. erings wherein they are likely to give coun- 

tenance to their use ; that they do not en- 
gage either in the manufacture, sale, impor- 
Not to engage tat j on ^ Qr distillation of any alcoholic liquors, 

in manufac- 
ture, sale, etc. unless it be for medicinal purposes, or use in 

the arts ; and that they abstain from renting 

their property or furnishing any material for 
Not to rent a purpose whereby our testimony against 
ioT^tc 1 ^ intoxicating drinks will be violated, or doing 

aught that will in any way compromise this 

Treatment of If any member become addicted to the 
those who vio- use Q f intoxicants, and uphold his course, 

late the testi- . .. p .. n i 

mony. or S1 £ n applications for licenses to sell the 

same, rent his property for such purpose, 
or engage in the business in violation of 


our testimony, it should concern the Monthly 
Meeting to which such person belongs, ten- 
derly to advise with him as to his course, 
and if after earnest labor he still continues 
in the practice, the meeting may testify its 
disunity with him. 

As the granting of licenses to sell intox- Advice 
icants is contrary to the best interests of so- a s ainst 
ciety, Friends are earnestly entreated to bear tem 
a faithful testimony, by precept and example, 
against a system which gives to individuals 
the sanction of government to engage in 
such a business. 

As the use of tobacco is injurious in its Advice 
effects, especially upon the young, it is earn- a s ainst use oi 
estly advised that Friends abstain, and 
encourage their children and those under 
their care to abstain, from the use of this 
narcotic in any of its various forms ; and 
also that Friends shall not engage in its cul- 
tivation, manufacture or sale. 

Realizing that danger attends the use caution a* 
of all intoxicants, narcotics and opiates, J^-^ as 
Friends are advised to be cautious in their 
use as medicine, since the appetite acquired 
grows with the indulgence. 


As our time passeth swiftly away, and 
our delight ought to be in the law of the 
Lord, we tenderly entreat all to submit to its 
restraining influence, which if lived under 
will lead us to recognize and avoid the great 
temptations and immorality surrounding the 
stage, the corrupt associations and debasing 
influences of horse-racing, and of lotteries, 
wagering, or any other species of gambling. 

It is earnestly advised that a watchful care 
be exercised over our members, to call them 
away from these things to that purity of life 
which is essential to their well-being. 



Under a tender concern for the preserva- caution 
tion of our members in that purity and a s ainst - 
simplicity which become our Christian pro- 
fession, we earnestly caution them against 
connecting themselves with societies requir- 
ing of their members a pledge of secrecy. 
These frequently draw their members away 
from their families and their business into 
places and practices inimical to their best 
interests, and may also lessen their interest 
in their religious meetings. The convivial 
meetings of some of these societies, their 
ostentatious processions, and high sounding 
titles, are inconsistent with our religious 
profession. Our Divine Master encouraged 
his disciples to stand as a city set upon a 
hill, which could not be hid. They were to 
let their light shine before men, that others 
seeing their good works, might glorify our 
Father who is in Heaven. Overseers and Overseers, 
other concerned Friends are advised to ex- etc,to 

extend care. 

tend timely caution and admonition to all 
cases where any of our members have joined 
such societies, and may be in danger of thus 
being led astray by them. 




against tale- 
bearing and 

Whatever exercises we may meet with on 
account of a faithful testimony to the Truth, 
in all godliness of conversation, and to the 
end that we may not faint in our minds, let 
us consider the Captain of our salvation, who 
endured the contradiction of sinners, bearing 
his cross and despising the shame, that fol- 
lowing him and under his banner fighting the 
good fight of faith, we may finally obtain the 
crown of righteousness which fadeth not 

Friends are earnestly exhorted to main- 
tain a strict watch over themselves and each 
other against the subtle and mischievous 
spirit of tale-bearing and detraction, the 
manifest tendency of which is to lay waste 
the unity of the body by sowing the seeds of 
disesteem, strife and discord among brethren 
and neighbors, as well as to unfit those who 
either propagate or listen to evil reports for 
being of that service to the person reflected 
upon which they might be if the order pre- 


scribed by our blessed Lord to his church 
was strictly observed, viz. : " If thy brother 
sin against thee, go show him his fault 
between thee and him alone ; if he hear thee, 
thou hast gained thy brother." 1 

It is advised that when there is any appear- Caution 
ance of dissension and variance, or of un- a s ainst 

, . , . . dissensions. 

kind resentment and snyness among our 
members, the parties be timely and tenderly 
apprised of the danger to which they thereby 
expose both themselves and others, and ear- 
nestly exhorted to the mutual condescension 
and forgiveness becoming Christ's followers, 
whose mission should be the promotion of 
peace on earth and good-will amongst men. 

Members of our Religious Society are 
advised against applying to those who by any against 
art or skill whatsoever pretend to a knowl- soreay. 
edge of future events, of hidden transactions, 
or of the place where things lost or stolen 
may be found ; and shall any of our members 
pursue such a course or make pretence to 
any such art or skill they should receive the 
attention of the Monthly Meeting. 

If any of our members be guilty of im- Disorderly 

1 tii i r conduct, etc. 

moral or disorderly conduct, of notorious to haVc care 
crimes, or of such unseemly practices as 

1 Matthew iS : 15. 


shall occasion public scandal, they shall be 
visited or labored with by the overseers or 
other concerned Friends to endeavor to con- 
vince them of their serious deviation from 
our good order, and such offenders, if brought 
to a sense of their error, ought without 
improper delay to remove the cause of 
offence, as far as they have ability, and 
endeavor to order their lives consistently 
with our holy profession. 
Blasphemy. If any one in membership with us blas- 
pheme, or speak profanely of Almighty God, 
Christ Jesus, or the Holy Spirit, or shall 
deny the divinity of Christ, the immediate 
revelation of the Holy Spirit, or the inspir- 
ation of the Scriptures, he ought to be 
tenderly treated with for his instruction, and 
the convincement of his understanding, that 
he may experience repentance and forgive- 


In much love to our young people we ex- Exhortation 
hort them to avoid the many vanities and against 
ensnaring corruptions to which they are vanities and 

° * iii« ensnaring 

exposed. It is written, " Thou shalt worship corruptions. 
the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou 
serve." x Take the advice of godly parents, 
guardians and friends, ever remembering that 
next to our Creator children ought to obey 
their parents, and that disobedience to them 
is a breach of the mora, law, and always 
offensive in the Divine sight. Submit to 
their reasonable requirings with cheerful- 
ness, though these may sometimes thwart 
your own inclinations, and answer not fro- 
wardly or crossly. They watched over you 
and took care of you when you were utterly 
unable to help or take care of yourselves; 
why then should you grieve or wound their 
anxious minds by running into vain and 
expensive fashions, associating with corrupt 
or frivolous persons, wasting precious time 
in idle conversation and harmful diversions ; 
all of which, we have no doubt, the Divine 
monitor in your own breasts often pleads 

1 Matthew 4 : 10. 




to simplicity 
in dress, etc. 

Habits of 



Children to 
he placed 
with Friends. 

against, and shows to be destructive of you* 

We beseech you to attend to this Inspeak- 
ing Word, and dutifully yield to the tender 
advice of your friends. Shrink not from the 
cross of Christ in your garb, language or man- 
ners, but through a subjection of your wills to 
the Divine will in these and all other respects 
walk answerably to the purity of our profes- 
sion, and the simplicity and spirituality of our 
worship ; so may you be instructive exam- 
ples to serious inquirers after truth. To 
walk close with God individually means 
greater strength for accepted work, wiser 
discriminations of duty, and a refuge when 
sorrows and trials assail us. It gives a calm 
assurance which few things can disturb. 
" Remember, O my soul, the quietude of 
those in whom Christ governs." 

Friends are advised to bring up their child- 
ren to habits of industry, placing them with 
sober and exemplary persons for instruction 
in such occupations as are consistent with 
our religious principles and testimonies. 
And when it is necessary for them to leave 
home, let them board if practicable in a 
Friends' family, so that their surroundings 
and intercourse may tend to preserve them 
in a becoming conduct and demeanor. 


And it is desired that those whose circum- ^ 

Those able, 

stances furnish ability for instructing the to assist less 
children of members less affluent in useful affluent - 
and suitable employments, may extend to 
them such aid and encouragement as will 
remove every reason for placing them with 
those not in membership with us. 


We tenderly and earnestly advise and ex- Readinc7 of 
hort all parents and heads of families thattbe Scriptures 
they endeavor to instruct their children and encouraged ' 
families in the doctrines and precepts of the 
Christian religion as contained in the Scrip- 
tures ; and that they incite them to the dili- 
gent and reverent reading of those excellent 
writings, which set forth the miraculous con- 
ception, birth, holy life, wonderful works, 
blessed example, death, resurrection and as- 
cension of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ ; and to educate their children in the 
belief of the inward manifestation and opera- Fundamental 
tion of the Holy Spirit on their own minds, principle of 
which is the fundamental principle of our 
Society, that they may reap the benefit and 
advantage thereof for their own peace and 
everlasting happiness. 


Liberty of 


Liberty of conscience being the common 
right of all men, and particularly essential to 
the well-being of religious societies, we hold 
it to be indispensably incumbent upon us to 
maintain it inviolably amongst ourselves ; 
and therefore advise and exhort all in pro- 
fession with us to decline the acceptance of 
Caution as to any office or station in civil government, 
the duties of which are inconsistent with our 
religious principles, or in the exercise of 
which they may be, or think themselves to 
be, under the necessity of exacting of their 
brethren any compliance against which we 
are conscientiously scrupulous. 

We believe that we are called to show to 
the world in life and practice that the blessed 
reign of the Messiah, the Prince of Peace, is 
begun, which will, we believe, proceed until it 
attains its completion in the earth, when, ac- 
cording to the prophecies of Isaiah and 
Micah, "Nation shall not lift up sword 
against nation, neither shall they learn war 
any more." 1 We cannot, therefore, consist- 
ently join with such as form combinations of 


Isaiah 2 : 4. 

TRADE. 55 

a hostile nature against any, nor can we Resectfor 
unite with or encourage such as revile or those in 
asperse those in authority. It is written, auQlorit y- 
"Thou shalt not speak evil of a ruler of thy 
people." * 


We affectionately desire that Friends rnay Caution 
wait for Divine counsel in all their engage- against an 
ments, and not suffer their minds to be hur- 1 J nordx " ate 

desire tor 

ried away by an inordinate desire for worldly riches, 
riches ; remembering the observation of the 
Apostle in his day, so often sorrowfully 
verified in ours, that "They that are minded 
to be rich fall into a temptation and a snare 
and many foolish and hurtful lusts." 2 Even 
when riches to any extraordinary degree 
have been amassed by the successful indus- 
try of parents, how often have they proved 
like wings to their children, carrying them 
beyond the limitations of Truth into liber- 
ties repugnant to our religious testimonies, 
and sometimes into undertakings which have 
terminated in irreparable damage to their 
temporal affairs, if not an entire forgetful- 
ness of the great work of the soul's salvation, 

x Acts 23:5. 2 I. Timothy 6:9. 








ability to 


Contracts to 
be strictly 

It is earnestly desired that Friends be care- 
ful to avoid all pursuit after the things of this 
world, by such ways and means as depend 
too much on hazardous enterprises ; but 
rather labor to content themselves with such 
a plain way and manner of living as is most 
agreeable to the self-denying principle 
which we profess, and most conducive to 
that tranquillity of mind which is insepara- 
ble from the right enjoyment even of tem- 
poral things. It is advised that where any 
among us err, or are in danger of erring in 
these respects, they be faithfully and timely 

Being earnestly concerned that the service 
of our religious Society may not be ob- 
structed, or its reputation dishonored by any 
imprudence of its members in their worldly 
engagements, we recommend to all that they 
be careful not to venture upon such business 
as they do not well understand, nor launch 
out in trade beyond their abilities, and at the 
risk of others, especially on the credit which 
may be derived from a profession of the 
Truth; but that they bound their engage- 
ments by their means, and when they enter 
into contracts or make promises, that they 
endeavor on all occasions strictly to fulfil 


TRADE. 57 

Friends are recommended frequently to Affairs to be 
inspect the state of their affairs, and to keep frequentl , y 

r * inspected, 

their accounts clearly and accurately, that an d accurate 
they may thus more easily know whether 
they live within the bounds of their circum- 
stances, and that the settlement of their 
estates after death may be less perplexing. 
It is also recommended that when any find 
they have not, or are in danger of not having 

J . „ . , & Friends to be 

more property left than is sufficient to dis- consulted. 
charge their debts, they promptly disclose 
their circumstances to some judicious Friends 
and ask their advice how to act. 

When overseers or other concerned Friends Counsel to be 
have reason to fear that any of our members extended - 
are declining in their circumstances and likely 
to fail, it is recommended that such be sea- 
sonably counseled with. 

When it is known that any member of our 
Society has become unable to discharge his 
obligations, the Overseers should, unless after overseers, 
consideration they believe such action un- 
necessary or inexpedient, inform the Prepara- 
tive or Monthly Meeting. Upon receipt of 
such information the Monthly Meeting should Monthl y 

. . Meeting 

appoint a committee to inquire into the cir- action 
cumstances of the case, and upon their 
report, take such further action as may appear 



to be without 
condition, etc, 

Advice to 
trustees and 

Caution to 
managers of 

etc., not to be 
received from. 

Just debts to 
be paid when 

We urge upon the attention of Friends 
that assignments of property for the benefit 
of creditors be without condition or reser- 
vation ; and that, when practicable, the 
creditors be consulted as to the person to be 
appointed assignee ; that when a Friend ac- 
cepts the office of trustee or assignee, he be 
active in collecting the effects of the estate, 
and prompt in making distribution, and that 
trustees of all kinds be careful to keep trust 
funds clearly separate from their personal 

We desire to warn our members who are 
managers or stockholders of incorporated 
companies, to be careful how they assume 
that acts which would be improper for them as 
individuals are allowable in such companies. 

Our meetings should not receive subscrip- 
tions, donations, or bequests from persons 
who have fallen short in the payment of their 
debts until they shall have paid off their de- 
ficiencies, or been voluntarily released there- 
from by their creditors ; for it should be re- 
membered that though in such cases the person 
may have been legally discharged, the prop- 
erty he may afterwards acquire is not prop- 
erly his own till the former debts have been 
fairly paid to the satisfaction of the creditors. 


We caution all in membership with us to caution 
be careful how they enter into joint obliga- a ^ ainst J oint 

... iii r i • obligations. 

tions with others under the plea ol rendering 
acts of kindness ; many by so doing have 
been suddenly ruined, and their families re- 
duced to deplorable circumstances. 


When differences arise between any of Mode a dvi se d 
our members about property, it will usually in settlement 
be best to proceed substantially as follows; 
and we should endeavor to pursue a similar 
course where we have differences with per- 
sons not members of our Society. 

Let the party who thinks himself aggrieved 
calmly and kindly ask the other to comply 
with the demand for settlement. If this be 
refused, the complainant, or if he lives at too 
great a distance, some friend whom he may 
authorize, should take with him one or two 
ot the overseers, or other discreet persons, 
and in their presence, repeat the request. 

If this should fail of the desired effect, Arbitrators 
let the parties choose a suitable number advised - 



Duties of 

may take 
legal advice. 

Advice to 

of arbitrators, and mutually engage, by 
suitable written instrument, to abide by their 

When arbitrators are chosen they should, 
as speedily as circumstances will admit, 
appoint a time and place of meeting, and 
attend to the business without unnecessary 
delay, giving the parties fair and full hearing 
in the presence of each other, but listening 
to neither apart ; they should shun all pre- 
vious information respecting the case, or, 
having heard anything on it, endeavor to 
stand unbiased thereby, and should reject no 
evidence proposed if considered by either 
arbitrator as pertinent. They should not 
suffer their own opinions to be known till 
they have carefully considered the subject 
and come to a decision, and in their award 
they need not assign a reason for their 

When arbitrators are at a loss for want of 
legal knowledge in the matter referred to 
them, it may be proper for them, at the joint 
expense of the parties, to take the opinion of 
counsel learned in the law, in order to come 
to a proper judgment. They ought not to 
consider themselves as advocates for those 
by whom they are chosen, but as friends of 


both parties, whose duty it is to judge right- 
eously; thus they may the better answer 
the end of their appointment, and be helpful 
in conciliating the minds of the parties. 

It is desired that persons differing about Ministers as 
worldly affairs shall, as little as may be, en- arbitrators 

-A • • • i • advised 

gage Friends in the ministry as arbitrators. against . 

It is further earnestly advised that Friends 

do not q-o to law, particularly one with 

iiii-i Advice 
another. If, for any reason, one should think against going 

himself under necessity to bring an action to law - 

against a fellow-member, let him consult the 

overseers or other judicious Friends before 

proceeding. Where loss or responsibility " 

might result by delay, the Monthly Meeting excepted. 

should hold members excused if they proceed 

differently from the course defined in this 

chapter, provided they respect in their action 

the spirit of the testimony we thus present, 

and proceed in love and moderation, without 

anger, animosity, or purpose of oppression. 


of property 
to be 

while in 




Realizing the uncertainty of life, it is 
affectionately advised that those who are in 
the possession of property shall carefully 
consider whilst in health, the just disposition 
of it, regarding themselves as stewards only, 
and remembering their responsibility for the 
right use of all which has been placed in 
their care. 

The advice long contained in our Book of 
Discipline, addressed to those who have 
property which should be disposed of by 
will, rather than through the ordinary distri- 
bution of the law, is here renewed. It is 
tenderly advised that such Friends make their 
wills in time of health and strength of judg- 
ment; and therein direct their substance as 
in justice and wisdom may be to their satis- 
faction and peace, laying aside all resentment 
though occasion therefor may have been 
given, lest it should go with them to the grave, 
remembering we all stand in need of mercy 
and forgiveness. Making such wills in due 
time can shorten no one's days, but the omis- 


sion or delay thereof to a time of sickness, 
when the mind should not be diverted from a 
consideration of the approaching solemn 
period of life, has often proved very injurious 
to many, and been the occasion of creating 
animosities in families, which the seasonable 
performance of this duty might have effec- 
tually prevented. 

The caution is added that the drawing- of 

b Wills to be 

wills be not left to incompetent persons, but drawn by 
that due care be taken to employ for the com P etent 
purpose those skillful and of good repute. 


As the education of our youth in piety, 
virtue, and useful learning under the care of 
prudent, religious persons, has ever been 
one of our important concerns, children 
being much influenced by their surroundings, institution 
it is renewedly desired that Quarterly, Month- and sup P ort 
ly, and Preparative Meetings be incited to 
proper exertions for the institution and sup- 
port of schools. 

6 4 


Funds to be 

to be 

Friends as 


It is therefore advised that where schools 
can be maintained, funds be raised in the 
meeting to aid in their establishment and 
support ; that committees be appointed in 
Monthly or Preparative Meetings to have 
the oversight thereof, and that they employ 
teachers of our religious persuasion when- 
ever practicable, who are not only capable 
of instructing the children in useful learn- 
ing, but also of training them in the know- 
ledge of their duty to God and toward one 

The importance of training our children 
and youth in a knowledge of our religious 
principles and a love for our testimonies, 
being widely felt, Preparative and Monthly 
Meetings are recommended, when a living 
concern arises, to establish and encourage 
First-day schools within their limits, over 
which a guarded care should be extended 
through committees appointed by the meet- 


Parents, heads of families, and guardians 
are earnestly exhorted, to abstain, and as 
much as in them lies, prevent the children 
under their care and tuition from having 

. Exhortation 

or reading books or other publications ag ainst 
tending to prejudice the profession of the P ernicious 
Christian religion, or to weaken their faith rea mg ' 
in the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures or 
of the saving truths declared in them. Our 
members are advised to bear a faithful testi- 
mony against all forms of sensational and 
corrupt publications ; and, in order to en- 
courage a taste for good literature and Good reading 
to discourage pernicious reading, they are tobe 
earnestly exhorted to provide good books provided ' 
and reading matter for their children and 
families, and frequently to read with them. 

If any of our members print or publish 
any writing which tends to excite disunity or ten ™°f 
discord among us, they should be earnest- to disunity, 
ly labored with, and if they cannot be con- 
vinced of the impropriety of their conduct, 
the monthly meeting to which they belong 
may declare its disunity with them. 

5 65 



A fund being necessary to meet the ex- 
ammaiiy penditures of the Society, it is directed that 
raised. the same be annually raised by a collection 

from each Quarterly Meeting, to be paid to 
the treasurer appointed by the Yearly Meet- 
ing, and subject to be drawn out by its di- 
rection, or by that of the Representative 
Committee, as the exigencies of the Society 
may require. 
Quotas. Any re-arrangement of the quotas of the 

several Quarterly Meetings shall be produced 
by a Committee of the Yearly Meeting 
appointed for that purpose. 

The present arrangement is as follows : 

Philadelphia Quarter to pay $21.00 in every $100. 

Abington Quarter to pay $12.00 in every $100. 

Bucks Quarter to pay $11.50 in every $100. 

Concord Quarter to pay $18.00 in every $100. 

Cain Quarter to pay $ 2.00 in every $100. 

Western Quarter to pay $12.00 in every $100. 

Southern Quarter to pay $ 1.00 in every $100. 

Burlington Quarter to pay $ 4.50 in every $100. 

Haddonfield Quarter to pay $ 8.00 in every $100. 

Salem Quarter to pay $ 9.00 in every $100. 

Fishing Creek H. Y. Meeting to pay $ 1.00 in every $100. 



It is advised that each Monthly and Pre- 

_ _. . ... r i Monthly 

parative Meeting raise and maintain a fund Meeti 
sufficient for its needs, and appoint a treas- funds, etc. 
urer to have charge thereof, whose accounts 
shall be settled annually by two or more 
Friends appointed for the purpose, who shall 
report their condition to the meeting. 


Quarterly, Monthly and Preparative Meet- Annual 
ings are directed to make careful inspection in5 P ection 

... . . . r . . . r directed. 

annually into the situation of the titles ol 
the meeting properties, burial grounds and 
other estates which have been vested in 
trustees and by them held for the use and 
benefit of any of those meetings or of the 
Society at large ; and, if it should appear TimeI 
needful from the death of any trustee or renewal 
trustees, or other cause, due and seasonable oftrust5 * 
care should be taken to appoint others to 
the trust, and to have the new conveyance 
duly recorded ; that future difficulties and the ^H^ 
danger of being deprived of such estates may recorded. 
be avoided. 


aid to be 

It is recommended to each Monthly Meet- 
ing- to have a standing committee of men 
and women Friends whose duty it shall be 
to see, by visits or otherwise, that advice and 
relief are seasonably extended to members 
in need, and assistance afforded them in such 
business as they are fitted for ; and the ex- 
pense which their support and the education 
of their children necessarily occasions, shall 
be drawn from the treasury of the meeting, 
Cases not to upon the order of the committee, remember- 
be exposed. [ n g t } iat m exercising this benevolent and 
Christian care, the names or situation of such 
members should not be exposed. 



It is affectionately advised that Friends Moderal or 
keep to true moderation in all things apper- advised, 
taining to interments ; that they avoid the 
custom of wearing or giving mourning habits, 
the use of elaborate caskets, and all osten- 
tatious display or extravagant expenditure. 

It is recommended that Friends encourage Funerals 
the holding of funerals in our meeting- frora our 
houses, and that one or more suitable friends ™ eetm s- 


be appointed to be present to see that good encouraged. 
order is observed, and that the body be 
removed for burial at a suitable time. 

It is further recommended that at all inter- p aU se at 
ments time be allowed for a solemn pause, s rave > etc - 
both before and after the coffin is lowered 
into the grave, and that forms and observ- 
ances not consistent with our testimonies be 

As some who attend burials may have a 

. -. . . .. , ' . . Moderation 

considerable distance to travel and need in needful 
bodily refreshment, it is earnestly advised refreshment. 
that in all preparations for such occasions 
moderation be observed, and that Friends 

6 9 



for care of 

marks of 

demean themselves in all respects with 

To prevent improper interments among 
us, it is recommended that two or more 
Friends be appointed by Monthly or Pre- 
parative Meetings to have the care of our 
several burying-grounds, and that no person 
not in membership be buried therein without 
a permit in writing signed by one or two of 
these Friends, who should also take care that 
our burial-grounds are properly enclosed and 
kept in good order. 

That no costly or showy monuments be 
affixed to graves in any of them, it is directed 
that the size be kept within the limits of 
eighteen (18) inches in width, nine (9) inches 
in thickness, and ten (10) inches in height 
above the level of the ground, with only 
such inscription as is necessary for identifica- 
tion. But Monthly or Preparative Meetings 
may regulate the size of grave stones in 
their grounds, provided the dimensions here 
stated be not exceeded. 


The following particular advices to our Wherean( i 
members are directed to be read seriously ^en to 
and deliberately in Quarterly and Monthly 
Meetings at least once a year. And Month- 
ly Meetings are encouraged to read, or have 
read in subordinate meetings as way may 
open, these or other parts of the Discipline, 
with the caution to present them always 
weightily and earnestly, and at times suit- 
able to the purpose. 

In conducting the affairs of our meetings Conduct of 
Friends are exhorted to do so in the peace- meetings " 
able spirit and wisdom of Jesus, with dignity, 
forbearance, and love of each other. Those 
who may favor the adoption of any measure 
should not, after having fully expressed their 
views, manifest an over-anxious concern 
that they should prevail, and those who may 
not feel prepared for the adoption of a 
proposition should not endeavor to prevent 
it by undue opposition. 




Waiting in 

Truth is safe 
in its guid- 

Frequent waiting in stillness on the Lord 
for the renewal of strength keeps the mind 
at home in its proper place and duty, and out 
of unprofitable association and converse. 
Much hurt may be done to the religious 
mind by excessive and absorbing attention 
to outward affairs, for this, if suffered to pre- 
vail, benumbs the soul, and prevents its as- 
cending in living aspirations toward the 
Fountain of Eternal Life. 

It being evident that where the manifesta- 
tions and restraints of the Spirit of truth are 
duly prized and regarded, it leads out of a 
bondage to the spirit of this world, and pre- 
serves the minds of its followers from many 
fettering and disqualifying entanglements ; 
and contrariwise that inordinate love and 
pursuit of worldly riches often betray those 
who are captivated by them into many diffi- 
culties and dangers, to the great obstruction 
of the work of Truth in the heart, it is affec- 
tionately desired that the counsel and gra- 
cious promise of our blessed Master to his 
followers may be borne in remembrance by 
us : " Seek ye first his kingdom and his 
righteousness; and all these things shall be 
added unto you." 1 

1 Matthew 6: 33. 


Our members are earnestly entreated tc> . 

. . Music, 

consider weightily the disposal of their time, dancing, 
that, receiving it as a gift of God for the stew- card-playing. 
ardship of which an account must be ren- 
dered, they may not lightly squander it in 
music, nor indulge in the questionable diver- 
sions of card-playing and dancing, for we 
believe that attention given to these things 
has often diverted the mind from the higher 
purposes of life, and dwarfed the growth in 
religious experience. 

It has ever been a principle of the Society Moderation 
of Friends to live in all ways in moderation and 
and simplicity. Thus the powers granted us sim P llclt )'- 
may be put to their true use, and by- 
proper industry and economy, and the 
avoidance of excess and vain display we 
may be able to meet our obligations, main- 
tain those dependent upon us, and aid in our 
measure those who need a helping hand. 
The neglect of this truly Christian rule of 
life leads inevitably into difficulty and em- 
barrassment, and, often, to disaster and the 
reproach of the profession which we make. 






As it is our duty to strive to preserve 
unimpaired the strength, physical, mental, 
and spiritual, which has been mercifully given 
us, it is an earnest exhortation to all that 
they not only abstain from the use of in- 
toxicating liquors as a drink, not allowing 
themselves to become concerned in their 
manufacture or sale for that purpose, but 
that they be very cautious also in their use 
as medicine ; and further, that, as way may 
appear consistently with our profession, they 
endeavor to spread these salutary principles. 
And believing the use of tobacco to be not 
only offensive, but generally injurious, es- 
pecially to the young, it is affectionately 
advised that Friends abstain from its cultiva- 
tion, manufacture, sale, and use ; and also 
that in the use of other narcotics, regarded 
as medicines, great care be exercised. 


As suitable marriage connections greatly 
promote happiness and comfort in life, it is 
earnestly advised that when any of our mem- 
bers are inclined to marry they seek for Di- 
vine counsel and direction therein, and that 
their parents or guardians be early acquainted 
with their prospect. Let marriages be ac- 


complished in an orderly manner, gravely 
and weightily ; let moderation be observed, 
and no cause for reproach occur, but let all 
behave with such sobriety as becomes a peo- 
ple loving God. The testimony of Friends 
concerning marriage is earnestly commended 
to all, that it be regarded as an eneaee- 
ment solemnly to be made in the Divine 
presence by the parties thereto, who, proceed- 
ing in sincerity and truth, must seek Divine 
blessing and approval, which, if graciously 
bestowed, can receive no increase or enhance- 
ment through the intervention or assumed 
authority of human ministry. 

Gifts and 

All public gifts and legacies should be 
strictly applied to the uses intended by the i eg ac 
donors, or, if any unforeseen circumstances 
should render this difficult or impracticable, 
an early application should be made to the 
Representative Committee for its advice or 
aid. Monthly and other meetings of busi- 
ness are cautioned to see that timely care is 
taken for the renewal o( trusts, and they are 
exhorted to be diligent and particular as to 
careful investment of trust funds. 



Friends are earnestly advised to inspect 

Inspection of . 

outward the state of their outward affairs at least- 
affairs, once in the year, and to consider carefully, 

whilst in health, the just disposition of their 

estates by will or otherwise. 


The Quarterly Meetings following the 
Yearly Meeting shall be numbered I, 2, 3, 
and 4 ; the Half- Yearly Meetings, 1 and 2. 

At the Quarterly Meetings and the Pre- 

Whenand . ,,,/,,,. 

where read, parative and Monthly Meetings next preced- 
ing them, the Queries shall be read and 
deliberately considered as follows : 


No. 1 1-2-3. 

No. 2 1-2-4-6-9. 

No. 3 1-2-5-7-9-11. 

No. 4 1-2-8-9-10-1 2-1 3-14. 



No. i i -2-3-4-6-9-1 1. 

No. 2 1-2-5-7-8-9-10-12-13-14. 

Formal answers are not required to Quer- 
ies 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Answers to remaining 
Queries shall be forwarded to superior meet- 
ings. Summary answers only to Queries 9, 


10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 need be read by the 

Reading and answering of any of the 
Queries is not enjoined upon Preparative 
[Meetings identical in membership with their 
Monthly Meetings. 

Subordinate Meetings are advised to read 
and consider these Queries, or any of them, 
at other times than as directed. 

First Query. Do you hold your meetings 
in a reverent spirit? Do you maintain a 
faithful testimony in favor of a free ministry 
of the gospel? Does your meeting have 
such a ministry? Do you realize your re- 
sponsibility to your members and to the 
community ? 

Second Query. Are love and unity main- 
tained among you? Are tale-bearing and 
detraction discouraged? When differences 
arise, do you endeavor speedily to end them ? 

Third Query. Do you encourage the fre- 
quent reverent reading of the Bible? Do 
you endeavor by example and precept to ex- 
ert an influence for good reading and whole- 
some diversions? 

Fourth Query. Do you bring up those 
under your care in sincerity of speech and 


conduct? Do you maintain a faithful testi- 
' mony against oaths? Are you careful to live 
within the bounds of your circumstances, 
and to keep to simplicity of dress and home 
surroundings? Do you observe moderation 
on social occasions and in conducting mar- 
riages and funerals? 

Fifth Query. Do you fulfill the obliga- 
tions of citizenship? Are you punctual to 
promises and just in the payment of debts? 
Do you bear a faithful testimony against all 
forms of lotteries and gambling? Do you 
recognize your responsibility for just deal- 
ing, whether as individuals or as members of 
corporations? Do you take care of such of 
your members as need aid and assist them 
when possible to become self-supporting? 

Sixth Query. Are you clear of the manu- 
facture, sale, and use of intoxicating liquors 
as a drink and for culinary purposes, and 
careful to discourage the same? Are you 
cautious in their use as medicine, clear of 
signing applications for license to make or 
sell them as a drink and of rentingyour prop- 
erty for such purposes? Do you discourage 
the use of tobacco and other narcotics? 

Seventh Query. Do you maintain a faith- 
ful testimony in favor of the peaceful settle- 


ment of differences and against war and the 
preparations for and incitements to it? 

Eighth Query. Are members whose con- 
duct or manner of living gives reasonable 
ground for concern, seasonably advised with 
for their preservation and recovery? Are 
those who violate our testimonies treated 
with in the spirit of meekness and love, with- 
out partiality or unnecessary delay, in order 
for their help? 

Ninth Query. Are all your religious meet- 
ings for worship and for discipline regularly 
held ? Do your resident members attend and 
observe the hour ? What changes have been 
made in the times and places of holding your 
meetings, and what new meetings have been 

Tenth Query. Are there First-Day 
Schools held in connection with your meet- 
ings? Are they under the care of commit- 
tees appointed in the Preparative or Monthly 
Meeting, and are they conducted in accord 
with our principles and testimonies. 

Eleventh Query. How many young women 
and how many young men between the ages 
of sixteen and twenty-four years are mem- 
bers of your meeting? Has your meeting 
this year met the responsibility of giving 


to these and other persons interested, lov- 
ing care and instruction sufficient for their 
enlightenment as to our principles and 
testimonies and for the development of 
their spiritual life? 

Twelfth Query. Are there schools es- 
tablished among you for the education of 
your children, under charge of teachers in 
membership with us, and superintended by 
committees appointed in your business 
meetings? Do the teachers and pupils at- 
tend mid-week meetings? 

Thirteenth Query. Has due care been 
taken to record each birth, removal, and 
death that has occurred among the members 
of your meeting during the last year? Has 
a duplicate or copy of each marriage cer- 
tificate been carefully made and preserved? 
Have all disused or completed record or 
minute books of the meeting been deposited 
in a place of safety, approved by the meeting? 

Fourteenth Query. Have all the Queries 
been read, seriously considered, and an- 
swered as directed? 

[Note. — In connection with the Tenth and Twelfth Queries, 
the several Meetings are directed to forward annually to the 
Yearly Meeting full and orderly returns as to the number of 
teachers, pupils, etc., as they exist on Second month ist, accord- 
ing to such form and arrangement as may be approved by the 
Yearly Meeting Committees on First-day Schools and on Edu- 


The Society of Friends has ever regarded Vi f 
the marriage contract as one of a religious Friends 
nature, and as affecting all the relations of concermn g- 
life. It is therefore earnestly and affection- 
ately advised, that, previous to making any Divine 
procedure in this important concern, our counsel to be 
members seriously and humbly wait upon sou g ht - 
the Lord for counsel and direction. When 
favored with satisfactory clearness therein Advice of 

... , . parents to be 

they should acquaint their parents or guardi- soug h t . 
ans with their prospect and seek their advice. 
In this way they may be preserved from 
unsuitable connections. Parents and con- 
cerned Friends should discourage the mar-^ lththose 
riage of our members with those of other fessions 
principles and professions of religion; be. discouraged, 
cause unhappiness often results from want 
of harmony and sympathy in religious con- 
victions, and serious difficulties may arise in 
the training of children. 

The following are principles upon which 
the good order in our Religious Society, in 
relation to the accomplishment of marriage, is 
founded : — 

6 81 



Consent of 
parents or 

Proposal to 
be laid before 

Assistance of 
priest or 
minister to be 

Order to be 

Notice of 

First. That the consent of parents or 
guardians should be early obtained by the 
parties, in order to preserve harmony, peace 
and unity in families ; and to guard against 
hasty and improper connections. 

Second. That the Society may extend a 
watchful care over its members, and that 
Friends may proceed commendably in this 
important connection, the proposal of mar- 
riage should be laid before the Monthly 

Third. That Friends maintain a testi- 
mony in support of the free ministry of the 
Gospel, by avoiding the assistance of a priest 
or minister in accomplishing this solemn en- 

For the purpose of maintaining these prin- 
ciples and testimonies, it is agreed that the 
following order be observed in the accomplish- 
ment of marriage : — 

The man and woman making the proposal 

of marriage should communicate their inten- 

tions to the Monthly Meeting in writing, 
signed by them both, substantially as fol- 
lows : — r- 


To Monthly Meeting of Friends. 

With Divine permission, and Friends' 
approbation, we intend marriage with each 

A. B. 

D. E. 

If they have parents or guardians, the consent of 
consent of these, when it may reasonably P arents tobe 
be obtained, should be expressed in the 
meeting, or certified thereto in writing. 

If the persons belong to the same month- 
ly meeting, a committee of men and women 
Friends should be appointed to inquire re- committee of 
specting their clearness of other similar en- in q uir y- 
gagements, and to take any needful care 
that the provisions of state laws in such cases 
will be complied with ; and that the rights of Rights of 
children by a previous marriage (where there chlldren h ? 

J L o v previous 

are such) are legally secured. Where either marriage. 
is a member of another monthly meeting, he 
or she should, in ample time for inquiry, ask 
therefrom a certificate of membership, and of ^' hen not 

. r . . members of 

clearness of other marriage engagements ; same Montbly 
and in this case a committee appointed as Meeting. 
above, directed by the meeting having gen- 
eral charge, may, at its discretion, consist of 
Friends of but one sex. 






Time and 

Committee of 

May be 

Order at 

F' iends' 

If at the next meeting, the committee shall 
report that inquiry has been made, and that 
no obstruction to further proceeding appears, 
and where one party is a member of another 
meeting, if a satisfactory report shall be re- 
ceived therefrom, the Monthly Meeting should 
grant the parties liberty to accomplish their 
marriage according to our order, at a public 
meeting for worship, or at a meeting at such 
other time and place as it may approve, ex- 
cept on the First day of the week, and should 
appoint two Friends of each sex to have care 
and oversieht thereof. Nominations of such 
overseers may be made in writing, and those 
so proposed, if thought suitable by the meet- 
ing, may be appointed. 

A marriage having been authorized, and 
the meeting gathered at which it is to be ac- 
complished, it is advised that a season of 
quiet solemnity be observed, after which the 
parties to the marriage should rise in the 
presence of the assembly, and, taking each 
other by the hand, the man should declare 
audibly in words to this effect: — "In the 
presence of the Lord, and before this assem- 
bly, I take thee, D. E., to be my wife, promis- 
ing-, with Divine assistance, to be unto thee 
a loving and faithful husband until death 
shall separate us." 


Then the woman should, in like manner, 
declare : "In the presence of the Lord, and 
before this assembly, I take thee, A. B., to 
be my husband, promising, with Divine 
assistance, to be unto thee a loving and faith- 
ful wife until death shall separate us." 

After this declaration the marriage certifi- „ .. 

Certificate to 

cate should be read by some one approved be read and 
by the overseers appointed to attend the 51 £ ned - 
marriage, and should then be signed by the 
contracting parties. 

A period of silence should follow, after Meetingto 
which the meeting should be closed by the be closed, 
overseers or other Friends approved by 

Marriage certificates, before they are certificates to 
read and signed, should be examined, and, De examined, 
if necessary, corrected by the overseers in • 
charge of the marriage. 

The form of the certificate shall be as 
follows : 

Whereas, A. B. of , in the Fomiof 

COUnty Of , in , SOn Of Certificate. 

C. B. of and H. his wife ; and 

D. E. daughter of F. E. of 

and M. his wife, having declared their inten- 
tions of marriage with each other, before a 
Monthly Meeting of the religious Society of 


Friends, held at , according- 10 cne 

Form ot • » 6 

certificate. good order used among them [where the 
parties are under the care of parents or 
guardians add] and having consent of parents 
or guardians concerned [as the case is] 
their said proposal of marriage was allowed 
of by the said meeting. 

Now these are to certify whom it may 
concern, that for the full accomplishment of 
their said intentions, this day of 

the month, in the year of our Lord 

, they, the said A. B. and D. E. 
appeared in a public meeting* of the said 
Society, held at aforesaid; and 

the said A. B. taking the said D. E. by the 
hand, did, on this solemn occasion, openly de- 
clare, that he took her, the said D. E. to be 
his wife, promising, with Divine assistance, 
to be unto her a loving and faithful husband, 
until death should separate them ; and then, 
in the same assembly, the said D. E. did in 
like manner declare, that she took him, the 
said A. B. to be her husband, promising, 
with Divine assistance, to be unto him a lov- 
ing and faithful wife, until death should sep- 

*When the marriage is accomplished at a private house, instead 
of the words, " in a public meeting of the said Society, held at 

- aforesaid;" say, "at a meeting at the house of 

in the of " 



arate them. And moreover, they, the said 
A. B. and D. E. (she according to the cus- 
tom of marriage, assuming the name of her 
husband) did, as a further confirmation there- 
of, then and there to these presents set 
their hands. 

A. B. 

D. B. 
And we whose names are also hereunto 
subscribed, being present at the solemniza- 
tion of the said marriage and subscription, 
have, as witnesses thereto, set our hands, the 
day and year above written. 

It is affectionately advised that marriages Gravity and 
be accomplished gravely, weightily and sol- *° ^^^ 
emnly, and that the parties themselves, their 
parents, and others concerned take care that 
moderation be observed, that no reproach 
arise or occasion of offence be given ; but 
that all behave with such sobriety as becomes 
a people fearing God. If anything to the If otherw ; se 

r r £> J ° overseers to 

contrary be observed, the overseers, or other admonish, 
concerned Friends present, ought in brother- 
ly love to extend suitable admonition. 

The said overseers shall report to the next Overseers 
Monthly Meeting whether this advice con- 
cerning good order and moderation has been 
observed, that the duplicate marriage cer- 



under care 
of meeting 
with a non- 

tificate, or, if a duplicate has not been made, 
the certificate itself has been delivered to 
the Recorder of the Monthly Meeting and 
that the legal requirements have been com- 
plied with. 

If a person not in membership with us 
proposes to marry one of our members, ap- 
plication may be made to the overseers of 
the Monthly Meeting to which the member 
belongs, and if the said overseers are satis- 
fied, the proposals of marriage, accompanied 
by their consent, may be laid before the 
Monthly Meeting in the usual form, and the 
meeting shall make inquiry, and have the 
same care and oversight of the marriage, 
proceeding in the manner prescribed by 
Discipline, as where both parties are mem- 
bers of the same Monthly Meeting. 

No Monthly Meeting should entertain a 
proposal of marriage sooner than one year 
after the death of the husband or wife of either 
party to the marriage. 

It is advised that no misdemeanor be 

nottJ ™e an0rS Measured up against a person until the time 

treasured up. of his presenting proposals of marriage, and 

then be brought forward, though perhaps long 

before known to those who make objections. 

As serious consequences frequently follow 
to offspring from the marriage of persons 

See page 112, second paragraph. 

No marriage 
sooner than 
one year. 


nearly related by consanguinity, we cannot Marriage of 
approve or consent to the marriage of those first COUMns 

r r ° not consented 

so near akin as first cousins. The term to. 
"first cousins " applies to every description 
of grandchildren descended from one com- 
mon parent. 

Marriage being a solemn covenant for life, Divorce, 
and the fulfilment of its obligations essential 
to the welfare of the family and the mainten- 
ance of society, we cannot consent to divorce 
under any circumstances, or to any marriage 
or re-marriage in violation of this testimony ; Legal 
but a legal separation, without divorce, may separation. 
be allowed in extreme cases. 

It is advised that Friends exercise a re- improper 
ligious care in watching over their children, connections 
and endeavor to guard them against improper ° ai ^ a 
connections in marriage ; that they be not 
anxious to obtain for them large portions, 
but that they encourage their marriage with 
persons of religious inclinations, suitable dis- 
positions and habits of industry. 

In order as much as may be to prevent the 
marriage of our members with those who are Care of the 
not in accord with our religious principles youth 
and testimonies, parents and Friends are ten- t " lder ^' 
derly advised to an increasing care of the 
youth, early to instruct them in the principles 

9 o 


Our good 
order to be 

should visit 
those who 

Procedure in 
case of 

Retention of 

of Truth, by upright example as well as pre- 
cept, impressing their minds with the duty of 
religiously observing them ; and endeavoring 
to restrain them from such company as is 
likely to entangle their affections in an im- 
proper manner. 

Our members are most earnestly advised, 
when contemplating marriage, to proceed in 
all cases in the good order set forth in our 
Discipline. If, however, notwithstanding 
these advices, which experience has proven 
to be of very great value, marriages of our 
members do occur contrary to our order, the 
Overseers should promptly visit such mem- 
bers in a spirit of love, and endeavor to re- 
store them to unity and fellowship with our 
Society, which ever desires the temporal and 
spiritual welfare of all its members. 

When one of our members accomplishes 
marriage with a person not in membership 
with us, and in so doing violates our testi- 
mony to the free ministry of the Gospel, or 
does so without observing our order in rela- 
tion to the accomplishment of marriage, he 
should be treated with by the Overseers. 

If it shall appear from their report that the 
person sympathizes with Friends in their tes- 
timonies, expects to attend our meetings, and 


desires to retain his right of membership, 
Monthly Meetings may retain such member, 
and the overseers shall report the name as- 
sumed by the wife for official record, if she 
be a member. 

If, however, the report of the overseers Procedure if 
should not satisfy the meeting, it shall ap- overseers 

... . report is not 

point a committee to visit the party and satisfactory . 
extend further labor ; should this prove in- 
effectual, the meeting may discontinue the 
membership of the party, who should be fur- 
nished with a copy of the concluding minute 
in the case, with information of his right of 

When two of our members shall unite in Procedure 
marriage without observing the good order %vhere two 
recommended by Discipline, overseers shall unhe . m 
labor with the parties to convince them of the marriage out 
weight of the testimony which may have been of order - 
violated, or of the importance of our order, 
that they may be willing to acknowledge to 
the Monthly Meeting that they regret having 
violated our Discipline, in which case the over- 
seers shall then report the name assumed by 
the wife. 

If, after patient labor, the efforts of the 
overseers shall be unavailing, they shall re- 
port the case to the Monthly Meeting, which 


may discontinue the membership of both or 
either of the parties, who should be furnished 
with a copy of the concluding minute in the 
case, with information of their right of appeal. 
Or, if thought desirable, the Monthly Meet- 
ing may appoint a committee to extend 
further labor. 


Records to be All meetings for business should keep 
kept. neat, plain and correct records of their pro- 

ceedings in convenient books, with marginal 
references and index, and provide suitable 
places in which to preserve them. They 
_ . are particularly advised to attend to and 

Business to L / 

be punctually finish all business with care and dispatch, 
completed. tnat [^ may at no time suffer by improper 

Clerks. A committee should be annually appointed 

in each Preparative, Monthly and Quarterly 
Meeting for the nomination of a clerk, and 
when needed an assistant clerk, which may 


afford opportunity for their being seasonably 
changed, and for more of our qualified mem- 
bers to be exercised in these services. 

The use and design of Preparative Meet- Duties of 
ings is, in general, to digest and prepare busi- Preparative 
ness, which may be proper to be laid before 
the Monthly Meeting, and Friends should 
be careful therein not to occasion unneces- 
sary delays, or undertake to decide on any 
business which should claim the attention 
and care of Monthly Meetings ; and they 
shall not take cognizance of proposals of 
marriage, this being exclusively the business 
of Monthly Meetings. When it is agreed Cases to be 
that cases are to be carried forward, they forwarded in 
should be furnished to the Monthly Meet- writing ' 
ing in writing. 

When men's and women's Monthly Meet- Certificates 
ings are not held together, certificates of re- of removal - 
moval prepared and approved by one meeting 
must be sent to the other, and if there ap- 
proved, signed by the clerks of both. All 
certificates received must be read and minuted 
in both men's and women's meetings. 

When a Monthly Meeting is engaged to In( i uir > to be 

. r r -\ made on 

prepare a certificate on account of the re- application 
moval of a Friend to another Monthly for 
Meeting, careful inquiry should be made certificates - 



by a committee appointed for that purpose 
respecting the situation of his temporal 
affairs, and also, if single, concerning his 
situation in relation to marriage engage- 
ments ; and if on such inquiry no impediment 
be found, the certificate should state that on 
inquiry no obstruction appears relative to his 
outward affairs to granting a certificate. 
Acceptance of When a certificate of removal from one 
certificates of Monthly Meeting addressed to another is 
produced therein, and no sufficient objection 
appears, it should be accepted, and the party 
recorded as a member of that meeting. 
If any such person shall fall into circum- 
stances requiring pecuniary relief within one 
year after the acceptance of his certificate, 
the meeting to which he has removed, should 
assist him, giving speedy notice thereof to the 
other, whereupon that meeting should imme- 
diately assume the care of him until he is 
again self-supporting, and repay the expense 
which has been incurred on his account. But 
if any Friend be reduced in his circumstances 
by fire or other sudden unavoidable losses, 
though it may be within one year after his 
removal as aforesaid, he should be kindly as- 
sisted and relieved by the meeting whereof 
he is a member. 

relief needed 
by persons 


Friends removing out of the hmics of Friends 
their Monthly Meetings for any considerable removing 
length of time, are advised to apply to their * dv j! e ^° 
respective meetings for certificates directed certificates. 
to those within which they propose to sojourn 
or settle. If any one remove without so 
applying, the Monthly Meeting of which he 
is a member, should without improper delay, 

. r r , 1 . . When not 

if, after the usual inquiry, no obstruction lied for 
appears, send a certificate for him to the to be sent. 
Monthly Meeting within which he has re- 

When apprentices or persons under age Certificates 
are under the necessity of going from one for minors » 
place to another, their parents or guardians 
should apply for certificates for them recom- 
mending- them to the care and oversight of 
the Monthly Meetings to which they remove. 

It is advised that Monthly Meetings, as Those 
way may open, appoint two or more Friends brin g»ng 

... .. ill certificates to 

to visit those who come recommended by be visited 
certificate to settle amongst them. 

Monthly Meetings are advised to take due Certificates 
care that certificates of removal be seasona- to be 
bly forwarded through the correspondents to fo™°"dei. 
the Monthly Meetings to which they are 
directed, they being the exclusive property 
of such meetings. 

9 6 


advised in 

Dealing with 
offenders in 

under dealing 
not to sit in 
meetings for 

Friends are advised to be very cautious in 
changing their places of residence, it having 
been observed that the dissolving of old, and 
the forming of new connections, have in 
many instances been attended with effects 
prejudicial to a growth in the Truth and the 
service thereof, both in the heads and 
younger branches of families. We therefore 
recommend that before any determine to 
change their places of abode, they consult 
with their experienced fellow-members, and 
that a close attention be paid to the pointings 
of Divine Wisdom. 

In dealing with offenders where Month- 
ly Meetings are not held together, the 
men's or women's meeting should proceed 
separately until a judgment is arrived at, 
when, if the labor shall have been effectual, 
a suitable minute may be made and the case 
closed ; but if not, it should be presented to 
the other meeting, that if further labor be 
thought best it may be jointly proceeded in, 
and the result united with by both, which re- 
sult shall be communicated to the individual 
by the meeting in which the case originated. 

After a charge against a member for dis- 
orderly conduct is entered on the minutes of 
a Monthly Meeting, he should not be per 


mitted to sit in any of our meetings for Disci- 
pline until the case is closed and the Monthly 
Meeting satisfied. In all cases where a 
Monthly Meeting apprehends itself under the Procedure 
necessity to discontinue the membership of a wher , e , 

' , r membership 

person, let such person, it the occasion and j s dis- 
his situation will admit of it, be previously in- continued. 
formed thereof, and when the judgment of the 
meeting is issued let a copy thereof be de- 
livered to him with notification of his right of 
appeal. Persons who have been discontin- 
ued as members, and who incline to be rein- 
stated, may be received as other applicants. 

If a person whose conduct has been such Dealing with 
as to require that he should be dealt with, members at a 

. , .. . ■ distance. 

reside at so great a distance that he cannot 
conveniently be conferred with personally, it 
may be done by correspondence ; and when 
a conclusion is reached, he may be informed 
thereof in the same manner ; or if such a per- 
son reside within the compass of another 
Monthly Meeting, it may be requested to 
treat with him according to our order, and to 
report the effect of its care. If this be satis- 
factory, the person's membership should be 
transferred by certificate ; but if otherwise, 
a minute of denial may be made, and a 
copy thereof sent to the meeting within the 

9 8 


appearing as 

limits of which he resides, for the information 
of said meeting, and with a request that it be 
delivered to the person, with information of 
his right of appeal. 

If any person appearing as a Friend come 
within the compass of a Monthly Meeting, 
not being recommended by certificate, and 
Friends, to be De Q f disorderly conduct, the overseers or 
a moms e . Q ^ [ier concernec l Friends shall inquire whether 
or not he is a member of our Society, and if 
he prove so to be, admonish him ; and if the 
occasion require it, the overseers should 
report the case in the usual order, and the 
Monthly Meeting may thereupon inform the 
meeting of which he is a member of the 
circumstances, and take the direction of said 
meeting for dealing further with him accord- 
ing to our rules in cases of that nature. 

As there are members of our Religious 
Society living beyond the limits of any 
Monthly Meeting, and as it is important 
for the maintenance of o-ood order that 
Monthly Meetings should be acquainted with 
the situation of their members, it is advised, 
that each Monthly Meeting, through its cor- 
respondent or other suitable person, at least 
once a -year, address a friendly letter to its 
members who are thus isolated, endeavor- 

ence with 


ing to ascertain whether they continue their 
interest in the religious principles pro- Treatment of 
fessed by Friends, and in a good degree live tho5e who do 
in accordance therewith. Should no satisfac- nL rep> ' 
tory reply be received for the period of five 
years, the Monthly Meeting shall be at 
liberty to make a minute declaring that they 
are no longer members thereof. Due effort 
should be made to furnish the parties with 
information of this action. 

It is advised that when any transgress the Labor to be 
rules of our Discipline, they shall, without in s P iritof 
partiality, be sought and admonished in the 
spirit of love and Divine charity, so that it 
may be seen by all that the restoring spirit 
of meekness and Christian love abounds; 
and that a gospel spirit is our spring and 
motive, as well in discipline as in worship. 

If any case under consideration prove too A „ is . tanceof 
weighty or difficult for a Monthly Meeting to Quarterly 
determine, it should apply to the Ouarterlv ^ etl ° g,n 

r r ^ ~ J difficult cases. 

Meeting for assistance, or if the circumstances 
be such as to require it, refer the subject 
thereto by minute. 

When any Monthly or Quarterly Meeting copies of 
has occasion for, and requests copies of any records 

c . i_ • t r i should be 

ot, the papers, minutes, or records of another ted 
Monthly or Quarterly Meeting, it is advised meetings, 
that the same be granted. 



copies of 
minutes to 

Accounts of 
sufferings to 
be sent up, 

dents to be 

Duties of. 

Names to be 
placed in 

tives to 
Quarterly and 

Should differences arise among Friends, 
and the record thereof be made in any 
Monthly or Quarterly Meeting book, the 
granting of copies of such entries to the par- 
ties shall be discretionary with the Meeting. 

It is advised that Monthly and Quarterly 
Meetings collect and send up accounts of 
sufferings of their members for conscience' 
sake, and that they be preserved and recorded 
agreeably to the practice of our ancient 

Each Monthly and Quarterly Meeting 
should appoint a correspondent to whom 
certificates or other communications intended 
for the meeting should be addressed, and 
whose duty it is to acknowledge promptly, 
by letter or otherwise, the reception of such 
communications, and also to forward from 
the meeting such papers as may be placed in 
his charge for that purpose. The name and 
post office address of each correspondent 
shall be forwarded annually to the Yearly 
Meeting, and published in the Extracts. 

A suitable number of men and women 
shall be appointed in each Monthly Meeting 
to attend the service of the Quarterly Meet- 
ing as .representatives, and also at least four 
of each sex shall be appointed in each Quar- 


terly Meeting to attend the Yearly Meeting, Represcnta . 
and such representatives are encouraged tomes 
make a brief verbal report of the exercises encouraged 

r , . . • • i i to report- 

of the meeting to which they were sent to 
the next session of the meeting appointing 

And it is earnestly advised and desired Punctual 
that all Friends who submit to these, or any dischar s e of 

J appointments 

other services of the Society, be punctual enjoined. 
in their attendance thereon ; or, if prevented 
by sickness or any other unavoidable occur- 
rence, that they be careful to send informa- 
tion thereof; also that those who are under ° u , 


appointments to meetings shall not withdraw without 
therefrom before the conclusion without consent - 
obtaining the meeting's consent. 

When it is thought expedient to make or Method of 
alter anv rule of Discipline, or when it may changlDg 01 

' J • i i i 1 ■ • revising 

appear advisable to make a general revision Discipline. 
of the Book of Discipline, the subject shall first 
claim the attention of a Monthly Meeting, and 
in case the proposition be there united with, it 
is to be forwarded to the Quarterly Meeting, 
and if there united with in like manner, it shall 
be forwarded to the Yearly Meeting for its 
consideration and decision. 

All letters or papers directed to the 
Yearly Meeting, except from such meetings 



Papers sent «x> 

Meeting to be 

Certificates of 
Friends to be 

Committee on 
duties of. 

Extracts to 
be sent to 

as regularly correspond therewith, shall be 
first perused by a few Friends, appointed 
to consider and report whether the same 
be proper to be read in the meeting. 

The certificates of Friends, members of 
other Yearly Meetings, who from a religious 
concern are drawn to attend this Yearly 
Meeting, are to be read therein. 

Friends appointed to prepare epistles 
shall meet together before they proceed on 
the service, and also examine the several 
essays previous to their being laid before the 
Yearly Meeting. 

Extracts from the minutes of the Yearly 
Meeting should be sent to the subordinate 
meetings in order that each meeting, family 
and adult member may have a copy thereof, 
to have recourse to, as occasion may require ; 
and Monthly and Preparative Meetings are 
directed to exercise a care in the distribu- 
tion thereof. 


When a member of our Religious Soci- 

ety shall offer a resignation of his right of 
membership, it is advised that the Monthly 
Meeting, if way opens, appoint a committee 
to visit him in love and inquire into the cause 
of his resignation ■ and if his mind continue 
unchanged, and the meeting be prepared, a 
minute may be made stating that he is re- 
leased at his own request ; of this action the 
party should be informed, and such person 
shall not be a member of our Society unless 
received again, according to our usual order.. 



A member inclining to make an acknowl 
edgment of a violation of our Discipline 
should prepare the same in writing ; and if 
on consulting the overseers or other judicious 
Friends the purport appears suitable to the 
occasion, he may send it, or present it to the 
meeting in person, and remain until it is read; 
when, after a suitable pause, he should with- 
draw, before that or any other business is 
proceeded upon. The meeting is then to 
consider the case, and after a decision is 
reached, appoint a committee to inform him 
of the result. 



An essential object of our religious organ- 
ization being to strengthen and support its 

o o rr care over 

members in the upholding of our Christian members, 
testimonies, it has always exercised a care 
over their outward behavior, admonishing 
those who depart from its order, and disown- 
ing those who after patient labor appear 

Nevertheless, the help of the Society being 
by none so much needed as by the weak and 

• 11 Judgment not 

the wayward, the caution has always been to b e hasty ; 
extended that no judgment be placed hastily, labor - patient 
or in the spirit of condemnation, but that all an cmng ' 
offenders be labored with lovingly, patiently, 
and so long as a reasonable hope of benefit 
therefrom appears. 

It is the desire of the Society that no one 
be disowned except when his retention would ^ o > n s asto 
be to weaken our testimony for the Truth, disownments. 
impair the good example which we desire to 
set, or confuse our sense of right living. 

With these objects in view, Monthly Meet- 
ings have authority to exercise disciplinary 




Authority of 
Meetings for 
labor and 

grounds of 

labor, and, where such labor proves ineffec- 
tual, to proceed to disownment, upon the 
general grounds stated below, as well as 
upon those particularly stated elsewhere in 
this Book of Discipline. These general 
grounds are : 

i. Breaches of the Moral Law, not ac- 
knowledged, repented, and repaired to the 
satisfaction of the Monthly Meeting. 

2. Wilful disregard of those provisions of 
the Disicipline which by their language are 
made obligatory or prohibitory. 

3. Such transgressions of our Testimonies 
(stated under the headings of Ministry, 
War, Oaths, Trade, Arbitration, and Gam- 
ing and Diversions), continued, and after 
labor unamended to the satisfaction of the 
Monthly Meeting, as clearly prove the per- 
son not to be in sympathy with the Truth as 
held by us. 

4. Habitual absence from our meetings, 
without sufficient cause; or connection with 
other religious organizations. 


If any one be dissatisfied with, or think xotice to 
himself aggrieved by, the judgment of a Monthl . v 
Monthly Meeting, he may, after a copy of the * 
testimony is delivered to him, notify the first 
or second meeting thereafter of his intention 
of appealing to the ensuing Quarterly Meet- 
ing ; which notification the Monthly Meeting 
should enter on its minutes, and appoint a Monthly 
committee of four or more suitable Friends Meeting's 
to attend the Quarterly Meeting with it, and ac 
a copy of the minutes of the Monthly Meeting 
relative to the case, signed by the clerks, 
there to show the reasons whereon its judg- 
ment was founded, and submitting it to the 
said meeting. The Quarterly Meeting is 
then to refer the same to a suitable committee 
of Friends (omitting those of the Monthly 
Meeting from which the appeal comes), andQ uarter]y 
upon its report to confirm or reverse the said Meeting's 
judgment, or return the case to the Monthly actlon " 
Meeting for further care, as, on impartial 
deliberation, shall appear to be right, taking 
care to inform the parties of the result. 



1 08 APPEALS. 

Yearly If, on being informed thereof, such appel- 

Meetins's ] an t j s dissatisfied with the judgment of the 
Quarterly Meeting also, and shall notify that 
meeting or the next thereafter of his intention 
to apply to the Yearly Meeting for a further 
hearing, the said Quarterly Meeting, after re- 
cording such notification, is in like manner to 
appoint at least four suitable Friends to at- 
tend the Yearly Meeting with copies of the 
records of both the Monthly and Quarterly 
Meetings in the case, signed by their clerks. 
Here it is to be finally determined, and a 
copy of the determination is to be sent to the 
meeting from which the appeal came. 


When a Monthly Meeting, after solid con- 
sideration believes that benefit would accrue 
from a record of the life and services of a 
deceased member, it may prepare such a 
memorial. If approved by the meeting, and 
it is thought desirable, it may be forwarded 
to the Quarterly Meeting, for its attention, 
and if there thought advisable, it may be for- 
warded to the Representative Committee for 
consideration and revision, not later than its 
meeting in the Third month ; if thought suit- 
able by that body, it should be forwarded to 
the Yearly Meeting. 



Meetings to 
keep plain 
and correct 

Records of 
to be 

Query to be 

All meetings for business should keep neat, 
plain and correct records of their proceedings, 
in convenient books with marginal reference- 
notes and index, and provide suitable places 
in which to preserve them. 

As great inconvenience may arise from the 
want of due attention in keeping a regular 
and correct record of membership, it is earn- 
estly enjoined on each Monthly Meeting that 
it appoint a careful Friend whose duty it shall 
be, in books provided for the purpose at the 
Monthly Meeting's expense, to keep a full 
and accurate record of all births, marriages, 
removals, and deaths that shall occur among 
its members. And in order to eno-acre the 
attention of Monthly Meetings more closely 
to this subject, it is further advised that an 
explicit answer be annually given to the 
Thirteenth Query by Monthly to Quarterly 
Meetings and through them to the Yearly 

It is recommended that the form of the 
record be as follows: — 


Abbott, George 
Atkinson, Rebecca R. 
Andrews, Charles 
Antrim, Sarah 
Archer, Elizabeth 









Convincement and application. 
Request of Parents. 
Certificate from Burlington. 





10 mo. 
1 mo. 
4 mo. 
6 mo. 

Date of 

~4 It*. -J >-i CI 



Certificate to Darby Meet. 

Removed, parts unknown. 









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1 1 2 RECORDS. 

Copies ox The Representative Commiuee shall pro- 

Marnage y j c j e an( _j J^ ee p Qn nanc [ f or t h e use Q f Monthly 

certificates to - 1 J 

be kept and Meetings, to be distributed through its mem- 
furnished. bers, as occasion may require, neat, compact 
copies of our approved form of Marriage 
certificate, on durable material, and suitable 
for being firmly fastened in a book. 
Duplicate A committee appointed to have care and 

certificate oversight of a marriage should see that one 
and kept"*/ *" sa ^ marriage certificate blanks be prop- 
copy erly filled, and signed by the principals and 
recorded. witnesses, at the time the original marriage 
certificate is signed, endeavoring to make it 
in wording and signatures a duplicate of the 
original certificate; and when finished, deliver 
it to the Recorder of the Monthly Meeting 
for binding and safe custody; or if the 
Monthly Meeting shall so direct, the Re- 
corder shall make, instead of such proposed 
duplicate, a full copy of the original cer- 
tificate with all the signatures. 
Recorders to Each Monthly Meeting should furnish its 
be furnished Recorder with a suitable book in which to 
bind duplicates, or make copies, of Marriage 
Preservation As the record and minute books of Friends' 
of record and meetings are very valuable, and in scattered 

minute books. . *r i •„ • • r r 

places of deposit are inconvenient for refer- 
ence, and in some instances in danger of being 


lost, a central and secure place of deposit 
has been provided for them, and is under the 
care of the Representative Committee. And 
all meetings for business in the Yearly Meet- 
ing are encouraged to place therein such 
books as are not in present use. 


[The testimony of Friends concerning Slavery, incorporated in the Discipline 
in 1755, through the earnest labors of John Woolman and others, and at different 
times later repeated and extended, is here inserted as a matter of historic interest. 
having been omitted by the Committee of Revision from the body of the book, 

in view of the abolition of Slavery in the United States, in the year 1865.] 



It appears to have been the concern of this Testimony 
Meeting, revived from time to time with in- a s ainst 

. « .... .. . slaverv an'' 

creasing weight, to testily their entire disunity theslave 
with the practice of enslaving mankind, (and trade. 
particularly to guard all in membership with 
us against being concerned in the purchase of 
slaves from the coast of Africa), yet as we have 
with sorrow to observe, that in some parts of 
our country this shameful practice is still con- 
tinued and connived at, we think it proper to 
revive the advices heretofore issued, and again 
exhort our members to be no way accessory 
to this enormous national evil, but to dis- 
courage it by all the justifiable means in their 
power ; it being obvious, that wherever it 
prevails it tends to corrupt the morals of the 
people, so as not only to render them obnox- 
ious to the displeasure of the Almighty, but 
deaf to his warnings, and insensible and re- 
gardless of his impending judgments. 




This op- And we earnestly desire it may become 

pressed class t h e concern of our members generally, to use 
structed, ad- tne influence they have with those who hold 
vised and slaves by inheritance or otherwise, that they 
may be treated with moderation and kindness, 
and instructed as objects of the common 
salvation in the principles of the Christian 
religion ; as well as in such branches of 
school-learning as may fit them for freedom, 
and to become useful members of civil 
society. Also that Friends in their several 
neighborhoods advise and assist such of the 
black people as are at liberty, in the educa- 
tion of their children, and common worldly 

Understanding that some in membership 
with us, either through inadvertence or from 
selfish motives, have hired slaves to assist 
them in their business ; we desire such to 
consider, that in so doing they promote the 
unrighteous traffic and oppose our testimony 
against it. And it is our sense, that when 
slaves are thus hired, and the price of their 
services is intended for the benefit of those 
who claim the right of ownership, and not 
designed or applied to promote the liberation 
of the slave or slaves, such conduct is a vio- 
lation of our testimony. And where any 



among us cannot be persuaded to relinquish 
the practice, monthly meetings be at liberty, 
after patient labor has been found unavail- 
ing, to testify their disunity with them. 

Friends are also cautioned against acting caution to 
as executors or administrators to estates executors 

. . . . j j • an( i adminis- 

where slaves are bequeathed ; and doing any trators< 
thing whereby their bondage may be pro- 

We are united in judgment, that the state Kindness to 
of the black people who have been held as them. 
slaves by any of us or our predecessors, calls 
for a deep inquiry and close examination, how 
far we are clear of withholding from them 
what under such an exercise may be opened 
to our view as their just right ; and we earn- 
estly and affectionately entreat those in par- 
ticular who have released any of them, to 
attend to the further openings of duty. Even 
if no such obligations to this people existed 
among us, it is worthy of our serious con- 
sideration, whether any object of beneficence 
is more deserving of our regard, than that of 
training up their youth in such virtuous prin- 
ciples and habits, as may render them useful Importing 
and respectable members of the community, selling, 

It is the sense and judgment of this Meet- P urchasin s or 

J ° giving away 

ing, that if any of our members are con- slaves. 


cerned in importing, selling, or purchasing; 
or shall give away or transfer any negro or 
other slave, with or without any other con- 
sideration than to clear their estate of any 
future incumbrance, or in such manner that 
their bondage is continued beyond the time 
limited by law or custom for white persons ; 
and also those who accept of such gift or 
assignment ; — they ought to be speedily 
treated with in the spirit of true love and 
wisdom, and the iniquity of their conduct 
laid before them. And if, after Christian 
labor, they cannot be. brought to such a sense 
of their injustice, as to do everything which 
the monthly meeting shall judge to be rea- 
sonable and necessary, for the restoring such 
slave to his or her natural and just right to 
liberty, and condemn their deviation from the 
law of righteousness and equity, to the satis- 
faction of the said meeting, that such mem- 
ber or members be testified against as other 
transgressors are by the rules of our disci- 
pline for other immoral, unjust, or reproach- 
ful conduct. 
The meeting It appearing that, notwithstanding the 
for sufferings many afflictive dispensations with which 
the sk° W Divine wisdom has seen meet to visit this 
trade. land, many of its inhabitants are so deaf to 


the language of the rod, as to continue in the 
nefarious traffic for slaves to the coasts of 
Africa ; and that the importation of them is 
still connived at : this Meeting, considering 
such a conduct as a bold and impious defiance 
of the Ruler of nations, and pregnant with 
the most alarming consequences to our coun- 
try, earnestly recommends to the meeting for 
sufferings to embrace every suitable opportu- 
nity for advancing our testimony in this 
respect, and for calling the attention of the 
public mind to this awfully interesting 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Chapter on 104 

Procedure as to 104 

should be in writing 104 

iVdvices, See Particular Advices 71 

Affirmation to be encouraged 43 

APPEALS, Chapter on 107 

Monthly Meeting's action upon. 107 

Notice to Monthly Meeting of 107 

Quarterly Meeting's action upon 107 

Yearly Meeting's action upon 108 

ARBITRATION, Chapter on 59 

Advised that differences be settled by 59 

and Peace, see 7th Query 78 

Procedure recommended in 59 

proceedings at law, when permissible 61 

in differences between nations 42 

to be preceded by personal labor 59 

Arbitrators, see Arbitration 59 

Advice that ministers be not engaged as 61 

Duties of, and advice to 60 

may take legal counsel, etc 60 

are not advocates of either party 60 

Assignees and trustees, advice to 58 

Assignments 58 

Creditors to be consulted when practicable 58 

to be without condition 58 

Bequests 75 


122 INDEX. 


Birthright membership 30 

See 1 1 th Query 79 

Blasphemy 50 

BOOK OF DISCIPLINE, formation of 8 

Procedure to amend or revise 101 

BOOKS, Chapter on 65 

Good, to be provided 65 

Good reading, see 3d Query 77 

Pernicious, reading of, to be discouraged 65 

Printing or publishing, tending to disunity 65 

Representative Committee to assist in publishing. . 16 

to be distributed by Representative Committee. ... 16 

BURIALS, Chapter on 69 

from meeting-houses encouraged 69 

Grounds, committee to have care of 70 

Moderation in refreshments at 69 

Moderation in things pertaining to advised 69 

Size of gravestones 70 

Solemn pause at, recommended 69 

Suitable Friends to be appointed to be present at . . 69 

Business, see Trade 55 

Capital punishment, testimony against ' 42 

Card playing 73 

Certificates of removal 93 

of marriage 85, 86, 87, 88, 112 

of visiting Friends 102 

Children, rights of, when parent marries 83 

Children, see Parents and Children 51 

Record of, where parents belong to different monthly 

meetings. .- 30 

Membership rights 30 

INDEX. 123 


CIVIL GOVERNMENT, Chapter on 54 

Caution as to accepting office under 54 

Friends' belief concerning Peace 54 

Liberty of conscience 54 

Respect for those in authority 55 


Blasphemy, etc., to be treated with 50 

Caution against dissension or variance 49 

Caution against sorcery 49 

Immoral or disorderly conduct, etc 49 

See 2d Query 77 

Tale-bearing and detraction 48 

Corporations, caution concerning 58 

Correspondents, duties of 100 

Counsel, see Ministry and Counsel 18 

Dancing 73 

DAYS AND TIMES, Chapter on 36 

Reasons for non-observance of 36 

Dealing with offenders 96, 105 

See 8th Query 79 

DISCIPLINE, formation of 8 

Procedure to amend or revise 101 

Disorderly persons appearing as Friends, procedure 98 

DISOWNMENT, Chapter on 105 

Discretion of monthly meetings concerning 105 

Grounds on which it may be proceeded to 106 

Loving, patient labor to be extended before 105 

Position of the Society in relation to 105 

Breaches of moral law, ground for disciplinary action, 106 
Divine Witness, subjection to, a qualification for member- 
ship 32 

124 INDEX. 


Divorce, prohibited 89 

Legal separation, without 89 

Education, see Schools 63 

Epistles, committee on, instructions to 102 

Extracts from proceedings of Yearly Meeting to be sent 

down 102 

Monthly and Preparative Meetings to distribute. . . 102 

FAMILY VISITS, Chapter on 33 

Approval of Monthly Meetings required 33 

Fasts, feasts, etc., public, ground for non-observance of. . 36 

First-day Schools 64 

See 10th Query 79 

Fundamental Principle of Friends 7, 53 

Funds, Meeting 66 

Gambling 46 

See 5th Query 78 


See Particular Advices 73 

See 5th Query 78 

Gravestones, size of 70 

Monthly Meetings may make rules concerning, 

within limits stated 7° 

Hazardous enterprises, caution concerning 56 

Horse-racing 46 

Immoral and disorderly conduct, see Conduct and Con- 
versation 49 

See Disownmen't 106 

Industry, habits of, for children 5 2 

INDEX. 125 



Advice against Tobacco 45 

Caution in use of, as medicine 45 

Furnishing material for 44 

Manufacture, sale, importation of, distillation of . . . 44 

Renting properties for sale of 44 

See Particular Advices 74 

See 6th Query 78 

System of licenses, testimony against 45 

Use of as drink, or in food 44 

Violation of testimony, provision against 45 

Law, see Arbitration 59 

Arbitrators may take legal counsel 60 

Friends advised against resorting to 61 

Proceedings at, when permissible 61 

Legacies, Bequests and Gifts 75 

Liberty of Conscience 54 

Life and conduct, circumspect, a qualification for mem- 
bership 32 

Lotteries, see Gaming and Diversions 46 

See 5th Query 78 

MARRIAGE, Chapter on 81 

Advice concerning engagements of 81 

Ceremony of 84, 85 

Certificate of, to be read 85 

Form of 85, 86, 87 

Copies or duplicates of, for record 87, 88, 112 

Committee of inquiry, duties of 83 

Committee of oversight 84 

Duties of 85, 87, 112 

Consent of parents or guardians required 82 

126 INDEX. 

Marriage — Continued. tAtt 

General advice, duties of parents concerning 89 

Intentions of, notice to Monthly Meeting 82 

Member of another Monthly Meeting, certificate 

required 83 

Misdemeanors not to be treasured against the 

parties 88 

Moderation and sobriety at, directed 87 

of divorced persons prohibited 89 

of first cousins not allowed 88, 89 

Order to be observed at 84 

Paragraph in Particular Advices 74 

Principles of, on which good order is founded 82 

Procedure in, where one party not member 88 

Re-marriage not permitted within one year 88 

Violations of order in, one party a member 90, 91 

Both parties members 91 , 92 

with others than members discouraged 81 


Exhortation to diligence in attending 14 

Men's and women's together or separately 13 

Names and subordination of 12 

Order of setting up or laying down 13, 14 

Principles on which established 12 

See procedure therein 92 

Spirit to be sought for, therein 14 

Where Preparative and Monthly are the same 13 



Attendance of children at 10 

Exhortation of 1694, concerning 11 

INDEX. 127 


Meetings for Worship— Continued. 

Exhortation to zeal in attendance of 10 

Neglect of, care to be extended 11 

Order in establishment of 13 

Reverent waiting recommended 10 

See 1st Query 77 

See 9th Query 79 

MEETING FUNDS, Chapter on 66 

Monthly and Preparative Meetings should maintain 67 

Quarterly Meetings, quotas of 66 

Re-arrangement of quotas of 66 

Yearly Meeting, to be annually raised 66 

MEMBERS IN NEED, Chapter on 68 

Advice and relief to be extended to 68 

Children of, to be educated 68 

Children of, to be aided 53 

Circumstances of, not to be exposed 68 

Monthly Meetings to have committee on 68 

Newly-removed 94 

See 5th Query 7 B 

MEMBERSHIP, Chapter on 30 

Application for, children one parent a member 30 

by birthright 31 

Frequent attenders, not members, to have loving 

attention 32 

Instruction of, in testimonies 79, 80 

Monthly Meetings may discontinue, after five years' 

neglect 99 

of children whose parents are members 30 

One parent a member 30 

128 INDEX. 

Membership— Continued. 


Order of procedure, in application for 31 

Qualifications of applicants for 32 

Termination of, by resignation 103 

Where recorded, when parents members of different 

monthly meetings 30 

without respect to nation or color 32 

MEMORIALS, Chapter on 109 

Duties of Representative Committee concerning. . . 17 

MINISTRY, Chapter on - 34 

Admonition to faithfulness 34 

Essential qualification for, influence of the Holy 

Spirit 35 

Living and baptising, owned by Friends 18 

No trained ministers 35 


Advice to 26 

Appointment of members 20 

Historical origin 18 

Meetings of, not to interfere with meetings for dis- 
cipline 23 

Preparative meetings of 20 

Quarterly meetings of 20 

Queries for meetings of 27 

Queries of, to be read and answered : . . 22 

Representatives to be appointed 21 

Watchful care of, over membership 21 

Moderation, see Plainness 38 

Monuments, costly or showy, not allowed 70 

INDEX. 129 


Moral law, Breaches of, a ground for disownment 106 

Narcotics, see Intoxicants and Narcotics 44 

See Particular Advices 74 

Non-attendance of meetings, without sufficient cause, a 

ground for disownment 106 

OATHS, Chapter on 42 

Affirmations to be encouraged 43 

Offices requiring administration of, to be avoided.. . 43 

See 4th Query 78 

Testimony against, to be maintained 42 

OVERSEERS, Chapter on 28 

Advised frequently to meet together 29 

Appointment directed 28 

Duties of 28, 29 

should be seasonably changed 29 

when appointed, not hastily to excuse themselves" 29 

Papers addressed to Yearly Meeting 101 


Assistance by those able to those less affluent 53 

Children exhorted to simplicity, etc 52 

Children to be placed with Friends 52 

Habits of industry for children advised 52 

Parents' care for children 51 

Rights of children, when parent marries 83 

See Marriage 81, 82, 89 

Vanities, etc., children advised against 51 


On careful investment of trust funds 75 

On conducting the affairs of our meetings 71 



Particular Advices — Continued. 

On inordinate love and pursuit of worldly riches. . . 72 
On inspection of outward affairs and the disposition 

of estates 76 

On intoxicants and narcotics 74 

On marriage 74 

On moderation and simplicity 73 

On amusements 73 

On strict application of gifts and legacies 75 

On timely care in renewal of trusts 75 

On waiting in stillness for renewal of strength 72 

When and where to be read 71 

Peace, Friends' belief concerning 54 

See 7th Query 78 

PLAINNESS, Chapter on 38 

Immoderation in lawful things, caution against. ... 39 

Plain way and manner of living advised 56 

See 4th Query 77 

to be manifested in conversation, apparel, etc 38 

PRAYER, Chapter on 35 

Preparative meetings, subordination of, to Monthly 

Meetings 12 

not enjoined where members same as Monthly Meet- 
ing • • 13 

Queries need not be read in, where membership 

same as Monthly Meeting 77 

Use and design of 93 

not to consider proposals of marriage 93 


Principle of Friends, Fundamental 7 

INDEX. l3l 



Chapter on 92 

Business to be carefully and promptly dispatched . . 92 
Cases of difficulty, advice of Quarterly Meeting may 

be asked 99 

Certificates of removal 93 

Certificates of visiting Friends to be read in Yearly 

Meeting 102 

Committee on epistles, directions to 102 

Committees in, annually, to propose clerks of 92 

Copies of papers advised to be granted 99 

Correspondents to be appointed 100 

Correspondence with distant members 98 

Dealing with offenders 96 

Duties of correspondents 100 

Extracts to be sent down , 102 

Letters or papers, except from meetings regularly 

corresponding, to be examined 102 

Members under dealing not to sit in q6 

Offenders at a distance 97 

Plain and correct records of, to be kept 92 

Preparative meetings, duties of 93 

Representatives, their duties 100 

Transgressors, to be admonished in love and charity- 99 

See 8th Query 79 

When not held together 93 

QUERIES, Chapter on 76 

When and where to be read and answered 76, 77 

1st, 2d, 3d, 4th 77, 78 

5th, 6th, 7th 78. 79 

8th, 9th, 10th, nth 79,8o 

12th, 13th, 14th 80 

132 INDEX. 



COUNSEL, Chapter on 26, 27 


RECORDS, Chapter on no 

Form of record recommended in 

Recorder of births, deaths, etc., to be appointed ... no 

to be deposited in places of safety 112 

to be kept by all meetings for business no 

of marriages 88, 1 12 

See 13th Query 80 

Religious principles, convincement of our, a qualification 

for membership 32 

Removal, certificate of 93 

Certificate to be asked 95 

Minors or apprentices 95 

Caution as to 96 


How appointed 15 

Others permitted to sit with 17 

Rules regulating meetings 15, 16 

Services confided to 16, 17 

Vacancies in, how supplied 18 

Representatives, see Procedure in Meetings for Discipline 100 
Representatives, duties of 101 

RESIGNATIONS, Chapter on 103 

Procedure as to 103 

When may be accepted 103 

Riches, worldly, caution against inordinate desire for. . . . 55 
Rights of Children, when parent marries 83 



SCHOOLS, Chapter on 63 

Committees to be appointed 64 

First-day Schools recommended 64 

Friends as teachers of 64 

Funds to be raised 64 

Quarterly, Monthly and Preparative Meetings in- 
cited to support 63 

See 10th and 12th Queries 79, 80 

SCRIPTURES, THE, Chapter on 53 

Reading of encouraged 53 

See Books 65 

See Conduct and Conversation 50 

See 3d Query 77 

SECRET SOCIETIES, Chapter on. . . 47 

Advice to overseers concerning 47 

Connection with, cautioned against 47 

Simplicity*, see Plainness 3S 

enjoined by the Gospel 38 

upheld by our fathers 39 

Sorcery 49 

Statistical returns to be sent up with answer to 10th, 

nth and 12th Queries, [see Xote] 80 

Suffering members, advice or aid by Representative Com- 
mittee 17 

Sufferings, accounts of to be sent up 100 

Teachers, Friends recommended as 64 

Tobacco, advice against 45 

Cultivation, manufacture and sale of 45 

See Particular Advices 74 

See 6th Query 78 

134 INDEX. 


TRADE, Chapter on 55 

Accounts to be kept clearly and accurately 57 

Advice not to launch out in, beyond abilities 56 

Advice not to venture upon business not well under- 
stood 56 

Affairs to be frequently inspected 57 

Assignments to be without condition 58 

Caution against inordinate desire for worldly riches 55 

Caution as to corporations 58 

Caution concerning hazardous enterprises 56 

Contracts to be kept 56 

Creditors to be consulted in assignments, when prac- 
ticable 58 

Engagements should be bounded by means 56 

In failing circumstances Friends to be consulted ... 57 

Joint obligations, caution against 59 

Just debts to be paid, notwithstanding legal release. 58 

Monthly Meeting action in insolvency 57 

Overseers may inform Monthly Meeting concerning 

Friends insolvent 57 

See 5th Query 78 

Subscriptions, etc., not to be received from persons 

insolvent 58 

Those in danger of failure to be advised 57 

Trustees and assignees advised 58 

TRAVELING FRIENDS, early led to meet together. . 19 

Assistance of, for religious visits 24, 25 

Minutes of, where returned 25 

Public commendation or disapproval to be guarded 

against 25 

Visits of, beyond Quarterly Meeting 23 

INDEX. 135 

Traveling Friends — Continued. fkgt 

Visits of, beyond sea 24 

beyond Yearly Meeting 24 


Recording of conveyances, etc 67 

Representative Committee may advise concerning.. 16 

See Particular Advices 75 

to be seasonably renewed 67 

Trustees, and assignees advice to 58 

to be seasonably appointed 67 

Vocal Ministry 34, 35 

Wagering, see Gaming and Diversions 46 

WAR, Chapter on 40 

Arbitration, between nations 42 

Faithful testimony against 40 

Preparations for, caution against participation in. . . 41 

Trade or business promotive of, to be avoided 41 

WILLS, Chapter on 62 

Ancient advice concerning renewed 62 

Disposition of property by, to be considered 62 

See Particular Advices 76 

should be drawn by competent persons 63 

Worship, acceptable, how performed 34, 35 

and prayers, acceptable to God 36 

YEARLY MEETING, Chapter on 9 

Certificates of visiting Friends to be read in 102 

Committee on Epistles, duties of 102 

Extracts from Proceedings of, to be sent down 102 

History of 9 

of Ministry and Counsel, when held 9 

Relation to subordinate meetings 12 

to hear cases of appeal 108 


3 1715 OOSbO 3 


1111 Mm 


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